Introductory Hermeneutics of Sword Over the Gown


"They would walk together over to Convocation Hall just as pilgrims walk
El Camino de Santiago. The effect was the same. Instead of having the Shrine of Saint James above a cathedral altar, Sewanee had the Sword Over the Gown hanging in Convocation. My husband would come home with the latest discoveries revealed to them through its symbolism. He once told me that Mr. Lytle, Sewanee's great Agrarian mentor and iconic sage, when giving voice to the real sentiment, had sparked a revelation's insistence that the portrait should be read like a religious text, because finding and experiencing its many messages and meanings is akin to practicing the skill of Christian hermeneutics. They agreed that it should be discussed in those terms, because it serves Sewanee's remnant Gentiles as a choice vessel of grace."

-Luella Josephine Taylor, in THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


"For of the soule the bodie forme doth take;
For soule is forme, and doth the bodie make."

-Edmund Spenser (1552-1599), "A Hymn in Honour of Beauty"


"We soon become aware that all our assertions reflect our interpretation of the phenomena of existence, and that this interpretation is expressed through certain ultimate conceptions. The most basic of these are, in the language of philosophy, being, cause, and relationship; but we need to translate these terms into language more suited to our purpose. Accordingly, in our everyday assertions we say that a thing exists as a member of a class, or that it is the known cause of a certain effect or the known effect of a certain cause, or that it has points of resemblance with some other thing."

-Richard M. Weaver, RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION HANDBOOK, 1957, 1967, 1974


"That majesty which through thy work doth reign
Draws the devout, deterring the profane.
And things divine thou treat'st of in such state
As them preserves, and thee, inviolate."

-Andrew Marvell, "On Mr.Milton's Paradise Lost," 1674




"Goodness brightly visible insults the vanity of evil darkness and enrages cruel hatred against true justice."






From Dr. Johnson's


"There is something in true beauty which the vulgar cannot admire."

-Congreve, quoted by F.W. Ruckstull in GREAT WORKS OF ART, 1925


2003 Reproduced "Sword Over the Gown," Convocation Hall


"We need more- and it is out there, if a teacher will show us where to look for it. In the annals of history, the works of the great authors, the debates of the philosophers, and the lives of the saints we find stories of men and women like ourselves faced with the shock of the new, the temptations urged on us by our fallen nature, the pressures of public opinion, and the puzzling demands of adulthood. But studying the lives and works of those who have gone before us, we form our very selves. As [Dr. Louise] Cowan writes, 'To remake oneself in the image of something that calls to greatness demands a heroic tradition displaying heroic models.' "

-John Zmirak, "How (and Why) to Use This Guide," ALL AMERICAN COLLEGES: Top Schools for Conservatives, Old-Fashioned Liberals, and People of Faith, 2006


Mary Morrison, Editor in Chief, "Convocation opens Easter Semester 2014,"
at, February 3, 2014:

[Dr. Louise] Cowan, a critic of southern literature, especially of the Fugitive Poets and the Southern Agrarians, was introduced as “the last direct heir to the Fugitive’s legacy.” She studied under and befriended Donald Davidson, a founding member of the Fugitives, during her graduate studies. Sewanee also has a close relationship with both the Fugitives and Agrarians, through Andrew Lytle and Allen Tate, both of whom edited The Sewanee Review.

Though she is in her 90s, Cowan delivered a thought provoking and insightful speech, questioning what it means for Sewanee to be the University of the South, including what it means for the “the South” to be a cultural and geographic region. She insisted that “the identity of an institution itself should be unwavering,” adding that it is the duty of a university to preserve and promote the best parts of society. She stressed what she believes to be a Southern emphasis on texture, and warned against modernity’s sacrifice of texture for efficiency. Cowan lauded Sewanee’s attention to poetry as one of the South’s many textural traditions, and argued for the continuation of poetic respect and reverence in education. Ultimately,she concluded that Sewanee should sustain the noble destiny of America’s scholars.


"Recall your courage; banish gloomy fears.
Some day perhaps the memory of these things
Shall yield delight. Through various accidents,
Through many a strait of fortune, we are bound
For Latium, where our fates point out to us
A quiet resting place. There it's decreed
Troy's kingdom shall rise again. Be firm,
And keep your hearts in hope of brighter days.

-Aeneas, in Virgil's AENEID, Book I, Lines 257-264, 26-19 B.C.; English blank verse translation by Christopher Pearse Cranch, 1872


"And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse."

-Malachi 4:6, King James Version


What we call the beginning is often the end
And to make and end is to make a beginning.
The end is where we start from. And every phrase
And sentence that is right (where every word is at home,
Taking its place to support the others,
The word neither diffident nor ostentatious,
An easy commerce of the old and the new,
The common word exact without vulgarity,
The formal word precise but not pedantic,
The complete consort dancing together)
Every phrase and every sentence is an end and a beginning,
Every poem an epitaph.

-T.S. Eliot, "Little Gidding," 1942


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

Sword Over the Gown
is Sewanee's most historic, culturally significant, and locally beloved portrait. It was painted in 1900 by Eliphalet F. Andrews, unveiled in Louisville, Kentucky, in May of that year, and then was stored nearby in Covington until the 1920s.

Thanks to the efforts of an Episcopal priest of the old Christian church, it was in Sewanee by circa 1927, when it arrived at the the School of Theology. It hung proudly in St. Luke's until the building renovation of the late 1950s.  After the renovation was called complete, the Episcopalians of the new church abandoned it to the dank basement in hopes it would rot away and be forgotten.

Responding to an irresistible inner call, a professor at the College, who was born into an leading family from Natchez, Mississippi, of course, rescued the relic from further decay by hanging it in Convocation Hall in the early 1960s. It eventually earned placement put on the southeastern wall next to the grand fireplace.

During the 1998 Festival of Lessons and Carols, extremist vandals who adhere to a sick and twisted ideology attacked an unguarded Convocation Hall, and the portrait was removed for presumed restoration and repair. It was further damaged when steam pipes burst in Convocation's storage basement.

For far too long, some got away with saying, "We don't know if we can restore it or need to replace it."  Saying, "We don't know," was code for something for else.

Following the perfectly timed Charleston Annunciation of 2002, the unnecessary and grievous delay came to a wonderful ending when the the reproduction copy by Nashville artist Connie Erickson was finally unveiled at the conclusion of the epochal Polk Family reunion's Holy Communion service on June 1, 2003. That proud recovery of our greatest inheritance opened the first day of Sewanee's Epoch of Restoration.

The portrait is named Sword Over the Gown in homage to the answer given by Bishop Polk when asked in Richmond if he was putting off the gown of an Episcopal bishop to take up the sword of a Confederate general, to which he replied, "No, Sir, I am buckling the sword over the gown," signifying his positive defense of our Southern homeland as his holy and priestly duty.


"What place, Achates, and what land on earth Is not replete with the stories of our woes?"

-Aeneas in Virgil's AENEID, Book I, Lines 599-600, 26-19 B.C.; English blank verse translation by Christopher Pearse Cranch, 1872


"Leonidas Polk's combining his religious and patriotic duties is well remembered and honored in Sewanee, Tennessee. At his University, the stained glass windows in the Chapel depict his general's sword together with his bishop's crozier. The 'Sword Over the Gown' portrait hangs in the lecture hall depicts his sword and his bishop's robes- a portrait that is synonymous with the University of the South."

-Fred Brown, "Sewanee: Founded on Faith," Civil War Courier, Volume 21, Issue 1, January 2006


Emily Dickinson's "Province of the Saved":

The Province of the Saved
Should be the Art- To Save-
Through Skill obtained in Themselves-
The Science of the Grave

No Man can understand
But He that hath endured
The Dissolution- in Himself-
That Man- be qualified

To qualify Despair To Those who failing new-
Mistake Defeat for Death- Each time-
Till acclimated- to-



"Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things."

-Paul's epistle to the Philippians, 4:8, KING JAMES VERSION OF THE HOLY BIBLE, 1611


New Orleans, 1980:



1806 - 1864


"Accept it, recognize the natural power in the man, as men did in the past, and give it homage, then there is a great joy, an uplifting, and a potency passes from the powerful to the less powerful. There is a stream of power. And in this, men have their best collective being, now and forever. Recognize the flame of power, or glory, and a corresponding flame springs up in yourself. Give homage and allegiance to a hero, and you become heroic. It is the law of men."

-D.H. Lawrence, APOCALYPSE, 1931


"Being the particular Southerners you both are, of good breeding and well-born status, you've no doubt heard the saying that 'blood tells'? It was derived from Don Marquis, who said, 'Blood will tell, but often it tells too much.'

"Up on the Domain, we could see deeper and better than that. Blood does tell, but for us, it told just enough."

-Louella Josephine Taylor, in THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


"Following the death of his mother, young Dandridge comes trudging two hundred miles to Uplands, where old Major Lightfoot, after inspecting his countenance, owns the tie of blood by saying, 'Come in sir, come in: you are at home.' "

-In Richard Weaver's THE SOUTHERN TRADITION AT BAY, 1968, 1989; quotation from THE BATTLE-GROUND by Ellen Glasgow, 1902


"Whenever the power of God is made manifest, a division always occurs, because there are those who like it and those who do not like it at all."

-Father John Roddy, St. Hilda's of Whitby Anglo-Catholic Church, Second Sunday after Epiphany sermon, June 16, 2011, quoting the late Archbishop John Thayer Cahoun


"The foundation of revolutionary internationalism is a hatred of distinction and, among the idealists at least, a terrifying dream of human solidarity in which all differences of race and nation, religion and philosophy, tradition, culture, and class are replaced by a free-flowing snake dance of nondiscriminating 'individuals.' It is the dream celebrated in their anthem, the 'Internationale.' Making a clean slate and acknowledging neither god nor Caesar, the toiling masses of the world will rise up, and the Internationale (that is, their universal union) will be the human race. For this to happen, everyone clinging to one or another petty distinction- Catholics and Protestants and Buddhists, scientists and skilled dressmakers, patriotic Frenchmen and Poles- will have to be eliminated."

-Thomas Fleming, "Back to the Garden," Chronicles, February, 2011


"The last four words- though failing, hardly expiring- declare the center of Richard Weaver's historical and philosophical interest in the amazingly varied material that he explores. What deep-lying beliefs and principles enabled the South so long to be 'conspicuous for its resistance to the spiritual disintegration of the modern world?' From what sources of strength did the South derive its immunity to the subversive romanticism of Rousseau and the French Revolution and so hold out to become, as Weaver expresses it, 'the last non-materialistic civilization in the Western world'?"

-Donald Davidson, "The Vision of Richard Weaver," Forward to THE SOUTHERN TRADITION AT BAY: A History of Postbellum Thought, by Richard M. Weaver, 1968 edition


"That no free Government, or the Blessings of Liberty can be preserved to any People, but by a firm adherence to Justice, Moderation, Temperance, Frugality, and Virtue and by frequent Recurrence to fundamental Principles."

-George Mason, First Draft the Virginia Declaration of Rights, ca. May 20-26, 1776,
at; viewed 8/22/2010;
Final Draft adopted unanimously by the Virginia Convention of Delegates,
Williamsburg, Virginia, June 12, 1776



Quieta Non Movere


From, per John Randolph, credited to Russell Kirk, posted March 3, 2012:

An ardent Anglican during his mature years, and strongly attached to the Virginia of yesteryear, Randolph looked with foreboding upon the westward expansion of the United States, saying that no government which should extend from Atlantic to Pacific would be fit to govern him. At the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1829–30, he denounced “King Numbers,” the notion of one man, one vote. He was the most conspicuous delegate to that convention, though many Virginians of mark were present; and on the floor he expressed memorably the conservative understanding of politics— which he had acquired, in part, from the study of Edmund Burke. Here he is on one proposal of the innovators at the convention:

"Mr. Randolph said, that he should vote against the amendment, and that on a principle which he had learned before he came into public life; and by which he had been governed during the whole course of his life, that it was always unwise— yes, highly unwise— to disturb a thing that was at rest. This was a great cardinal principle that should govern all wise statesmen— never without the strongest necessity to disturb that which was at rest."


"If this then is the definition of great art, that of a great artist naturally follows. He is the greatest artist who has embodied, in the sum of his works, the greatest number of great ideas."

-John Ruskin, MODERN PAINTERS, Volume I, Part I, 1848


"Sword Over the Gown"

Eliphalet Fraser Andrews, 1900 A.D.



"To all those artists and laymen of the past and present who have done their best to hold high the creative ideal of the True, the Good, and the Beautiful, this volume is dedicated."

-F.W. Ruckstull's dedication in GREAT WORKS OF ART AND WHAT MAKES THEM GREAT, 1925


"Art," by Herman Melville, 1891:

IN placid hours well-pleased we dream
Of many a brave unbodied scheme.
But form to lend, pulsed life create,
What unlike things must meet and mate:
A flame to melt- a wind to freeze;
Sad patience- joyous energies;
Humility- yet pride and scorn;
Instinct and study; love and hate;
Audacity- reverence. These must mate,
And fuse with Jacob's mystic heart,
To wrestle with the angel- Art.


"Yes, that's right, he really is Sewanee's greatest Southern Rights icon. I know you aren't allowed to say that up there right now, but it's true. We all know that's why you aren't supposed to say it. But when I was up there, students would keep themselves worthy of his University of the South by speaking of him frequently with genuine reverence. His name was their ritual. (I only heard him mocked one time, and that was in class by a professor with a specialized 'expertise' in Southern history.) The students came from that special set of families who knew their sons belonged at Sewanee, because they had lost so much to Lincoln, Sherman, Grant, and Stevens. The memory of war and radical Reconstruction was palpable. Now, you are supposed to say that twelve years of harsh Reconstruction was a good start for changing the South by forcing it to catch up with the rest of America, but the change regretfully ended too soon. And you are never allowed to say anything good about him. For this reason, among many others, to those who know how to see and how to care, especially to those few still at Sewanee, he's looking better all the time."

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript



"My great religion is a belief in the blood, the flesh, as being wiser
than the intellect. We can go wrong in our minds. But what our blood
feels and believes and says, is always true."

-D.H. Lawrence, in THE COLLECTED LETTERS OF D.H. LAWRENCE, Volume I, edited by Harry T. Moore, 1962


"The poetry of representation, depicting an ideal world, is a great cohesive force, binding whole peoples to the acceptance of a design and fusing their imaginative life."

-Richard M. Weaver, IDEAS HAVE CONSEQUENCES, 1948


"Crucial to this philosophy was the role of the 'vatic spirit,' or bardic poet. The vatic poet was entrusted with the community's memory, which defined identity. One's identity was not created; it existed independent of the individual will possessing, [M.E.] Bradford argued, a historical and ontological reality. In the process of remembering, one literally discovered who one was. Because this rooted and immutable social identity is at the heart of the social system, the poet's role as a 'memory keeper' was essential. In preserving the cultural heritage of a people, its oral traditions and stories of 'blood and land,' the poet revealed to them the definition of their society."

-Paul V. Murphy, THE REBUKE OF HISTORY: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative Thought, 2001


"When righteousness is crushed, when evil rules supreme, I come;
age after age, I take birth again and again, to save the world."

, IV, v. 7 and 8, circa 200-300 A.D.


"Right's anvil stands staunch on the ground
and the smith, Destiny, hammers our the sword.
Delayed in glory, pensive from
the murk, Vengeance brings home at last
a child, to wipe out the stains of blood shed long ago."

-Chorus in Aeschylus' The Libation Bearers,480 B.C., translated by Richmond Lattimore, 1953


"When the sound and wholesome nature of a man acts as an entirety, when he feels himself in the world as a grand, beautiful, worthy and worthwhile whole, when his harmonious comfort affords him a pure, untrammeled delight: then the universe, if it could be sensible of itself, would shout for joy at having attained its goal and wonder at the pinnacle of its own essence and evolution. For what end is served by all the expenditure of suns and planets and moons, of stars and Milky Ways, of comets and nebula, of worlds evolving and passing away, if at last a happy man does not involuntarily rejoice in his existence?"

-Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, "Essay on Winckelmann," 1805, in the Introduction to Friedrich Nietzsche's THUS SPOKE ZARATHUSTRA (1883-1885), by R.J. Hollingdale, 1961, 1969


"Great star! What would your happiness be, if you had not those for whom you shine?"

-Zarathustra's Prologue, THUS SPOKE ZARATHUSTRA, translation by R. J. Hollingdale


"Thou bindest them by thy love.
Though thou art far away, thy rays are upon the earth;
Though thou art on high, thy footprints are the day."

-Akhnaton's "Hymn to the Sun," circa 1400 B.C., translated by J. H. Breasted, in DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGION AND THOUGHT IN ANCIENT EGYPT, 1912


"The essence of truth is not a mere concept, carried about in the head. On the contrary, truth is alive; in the momentary form of its essence it is the power that determines everything true and untrue;
it is what is sought after, what is fought for, what is suffered for."

-Martin Heidegger, BASIC QUESTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY: Selected "Problems" of "Logic," lectures 1937-1938; translated by Richard Rojcewicz and Andre Schuwer, 1984, 1992, 1994


"The essence is that from which a particular thing, and indeed in what it is, has its origin,
whence it derives. Therefore the essence of a thing, of a particular whatever,
can be conceived as that which the thing already in a certain sense 'was'
before it became the singular thing it 'is.' "



“My friends, the follies of modern Liberalism, many and great though they be, are practically summed in this denial or neglect of the quality and intrinsic value of things. Its benevolences— theology of universal indulgence, and jurisprudence which will hang no rogues— mean, one and all of them, in the root, incapacity of discerning, or refusal to discern, worth and unworth in anything, and least of all in man; whereas Nature and Heaven command you, at your peril, to discern worth from unworth in everything, and most of all in man. Your main problem is that ancient and trite one, ‘Who is best man?’ and the Fates forgive much— forgive the wildest, fiercest, cruelest experiments— if fairly made for the determination of that.”

-John Ruskin, FORS CLAVIGERA: Letters to the Workmen and Labourers of Great Britain, Volume II, Letter XIV, February 1, 1872


"There is a tide in the affairs of men.
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in miseries.
On such a full sea are we now afloat,
And we must take the current when it serves,
Or lose our ventures."

-Brutus, in William Shakespeare's Tragedy of Julius Caesar, circa 1599



"Permit me, therefore, to fortify this old dogma of mine somewhat. Taste is not only a part and an index of morality- it is the ONLY morality. The first, and last, and closest trial question to any living creature is, 'What do you like?' Tell me what you like, and I'll tell you what you are."

-John Ruskin, "Traffic," in

Grave at St. Andrew’s Church, Coniston


"Others say, because it is impossible to find a man of such perfection as I would have Courtier to be, it is superfluous to write it and teach that which can not be learned. To these I answer that I am content to err with Plato, Xenophon, and Cicero. As they conceived the idea of a perfect Commonwealth, a perfect King, and a perfect Orator, so also may we conceive of a perfect Courtier; the image whereof if my power could not draw nigh in style, so much less the pains shall Courtiers have to draw nigh to the end and mark that I have set before them. Let mine accusers content themselves with the judgment of Time, which at last discovereth the privy faults of everything, and because it is father to truth, and a Judge without passion, it is accustomed evermore to pronounce true sentence of the life or death of writings."

-Baldassare Castiglione, THE COURTIER, 1528; translated by Thomas Hoby, 1907 version edited by Rossiter Johnson and Dora Knowlton Ranous


"Well before the War, orators and writers often told the ladies that the age of chivalry had passed but then added that they could nonetheless count on their young gentlemen to behave according to its canons. The War brought a renewed emphasis on the religious dimension of medieval chivalry, and those divines who, like bishop Leonidas Polk, buckled on the sword could cite the example of the medieval warrior-priest: fierce in battle and tender in ministering to his flock."

-Elizabeth Fox-Genovese and Eugene D. Genovese, THE MIND OF THE MASTER CLASS: History and Faith in the Southern Slaveholders' Worldview, 2005


"Some of the most vivid memories we have are of certain things to which the name 'epiphany' applies. These are objects of mind that seem miraculously endowed with clarity- things caught in a moment of illumination so that they stand forth vivid in form and nature. . . . . The scene suddenly arranges itself in some kind of authenticity, and we remember it in a way that cannot be explained through mechanical impression or through our need to remember it."

-Richard M. Weaver, "The Attack upon Memory," VISIONS OF ORDER: The Cultural Crisis of Our Time, 1964, 1995, 2006




"Mark almost any young person, and you notice that he does not see very much, in the sense of understand what is present to his vision. He perceives, but he does not interpret, and this is because he is too lacking in those memory traces which lead to ideas and concepts. The memoryless part of mankind cannot be teachers of culture; they are however, ready learners of it if the real teachers show faith in the value of what they have."



"Jesus Merciful Christ! O, Merciful God, have mercy on us!"

-SIR ABDIEL, at the encounter


"In our concreteness, somehow artistic representation provides an icon of actual experience, always the best of teachers."

-Mark C. Henrie, "A Student's Guide to the Core Curriculum," in
ALL AMERICAN COLLEGES: Top Schools for Conservatives, Old-Fashioned Liberals, and People of Faith, 2006


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

The epiphanous moment arrived one afternoon while they studied the grand portrait of Sewanee's Founder and First Father.  The revelation was of how the overlapping and intersecting six iconographic elements (The Sewanee Six) guide our best-told story across the Glorious Founding, Vengeful Destruction, and Miraculous Revival of Leonidas Polk's University of the South.

1. LEONIDAS POLK-  Leading Founder

2. PROPHET EYE-  Student Gratitude

3. BISHOP'S GOWN-  Assisting Ante-Bellum Founders & Sustainers' Post-Bellum Revival

4. PLANTER'S DESK, PEN & INK & 1856 LETTER- Ante-Bellum Founding

5. BOOKE OF COMMON PRAYER in HAND- Founding, Consecrated Cornerstone, War, Destruction & Revival 

6. GENERAL'S COAT, SWORD & BUCKLE- Independence, Confederates, War, Destruction & Revival

Finally, we have found the one best use for the word "intersectionality." By looking through this lens alone, we are ready to proceed at making our progress toward deeper understanding of the critical issues we must confront.


The Great Seal of Leonidas Polk's University of the South


"For after a course of years it is possible to look back and see the development of certain formative preoccupations out of which the lineaments of a vocation emerge and take shape, seriatim, through a series of discrete performances."

-M.E. Bradford, THE REACTIONARY IMPERATIVE: Essays Literary & Political, 1990


Under C

Leonidas Polk as Received by the Gathered Saints

Preparing for the Opening Day of Our Epoch of Restoration:

First "Sword Over the Gown" presentation, Sewanee, Tennessee, Easter Semester, April 28, 2003

Opening Day of Our Epoch of Restoration:

Historic unveiling of the newly commissioned reproduction "Sword Over the Gown" portrait, Sewanee, Tennessee, Trinity Term, June 1, 2003

Living into Our Epoch of Restoration:

"A Man of God becomes a Man of War," Sewanee, Tennessee, Advent Semester, September 27, 2003

"Leonidas Polk: His Death and Commemoration," Chattanooga, Tennessee, June 15, 2004

"In Memory of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk," Pine Mountain, Georgia, June 26, 2004

Leonidas Polk remembered and discussed by special visitors, Pine Mountain, Georgia, September 19, 2004

"The Legacy of Bishop-General Leonidas Polk," Smyrna, Georgia, September, 20, 2004

Leonidas Polk remembered and discussed by special visitors, Pine Mountain, Georgia, October 22, 2004

"The Sword of Truth," Nashville, Tennessee, June 5, 2005

"Chancellor of The University of the South Killed in Battle," Pine Mountain, Georgia, June 25, 2005

"The Sword of Truth," Marietta, Georgia, July 12, 2005

"The Bishop's Sword," Smyrna, Georgia, February 25, 2006

"The Bishop's Sword," Mableton, Georgia, February 27, 2006

"Sword Over the Gown," Pine Mountain, March 3, 2006

Preparing for the Opening Day of Our Epoch of the Sesqui-Centennial:

Leonidas Polk remembered and discussed by special visitors, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 8, 2006

"The Bishop, the Educator, the General: A Prophetic Remembrance," New Orleans, Louisiana, April 9, 2006

Opening Day of Our Epoch of the Sesqui-Centennial:

Fulfilling the Cornerstone Prophecy and Establishing the Leonidas Polk Memorial Society, New Orleans, April 10, 2006.

The Bi-Centennial Memorial Address: "The Bishop, the Educator, the General: To Pray, to Think, to Dare," New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10, 2006

Living into Our Epoch of the Sesqui-Centennial:

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "Bishop-General Leonidas Polk's Wartime Communion Chest," Atlanta, Georgia, April 26, 2006

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "The Tenth Year Hence: 2016 A.D.," Pine Mountain, Georgia, June 24, 2006

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "Our Unchanging Christ," Atlanta, Georgia, June 24, 2006

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "The Triadic Mysteries of Leonidas Polk," Blue Ridge, Georgia, August 30, 2006

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "Leonidas Polk and the Communion of Memory," Atlanta, Georgia, September 26, 2006

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Occasion: Leonidas Polk remembered by special visitors, Pine Mountain, Georgia, October, 20, 2006

A Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "The Lesson at Cowan," Roswell, Georgia, November 7, 2006

The Concluding Bi-Centennial Memorial Lecture Series Address: "The Sesqui-Centennial as Your Trinitarian Prelude," Sewanee, Tennessee, Advent Semester, December 9, 2006

"St. John's Episcopal Church and the Leonidas Polk Pilgrimage," Spring Hill, Tennessee, May 25, 2007

"The Sacred Window of Memory: Leonidas Polk in Louisiana," Pine Mountain, Georgia, June 16, 2007

Preparing for Our Epoch of Reflection:

Closing Day of Our Epoch of the Sesqui-Centennial:

Living into Our Epoch of Reflection:


Dylan Thomas, "Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night," 1951:

Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.


"There is a message in the very being of your life, and only some of you have already heard the voice of this message. You've heard the integrity of this voice in your blood. Others of you feel the yearning for the messenger's voice and hope it will soon come to you, because you know you need it. That yearning speaks inwardly back into your being and is heard by the voice you will soon hear. As God cannot ignore righteous prayers, neither can the message, since it was put deepest-most into you by God, ignore your fervent longings to hear it. This is what we will address tonight."

-SIR ABIDEL, "Sewanee Sermon," from THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


From Donald Davidson's "Why the Modern South Has a Great Literature," Address at the annual meeting of the Southern Literary Festival, Mississippi State College, 1950; published in Vanderbilt Studies in the Humanities, Vol. I; STILL REBELS, STILL YANKEES, and Other Essays, 1957:

The picture in Vergil is idealized, of course. Nevertheless, that is the kind of knowledge that the South has faithfully cultivated throughout its history. Devotion to such knowledge, knowledge 'carried to the heart,' is the dominant characteristic of Southern society.



"Knowledge Carried to the Heart"


"Wherever such a divinized person lives, there we have the best, noblest, and, in God's eyes, most valuable life that ever was or can be. Attachment to this kind of life is rooted in a love of goodness for the sake of the good. It has an eye for the best and noblest in all things for the sake of the good. And it is so deep that it can never be quite abandoned and rejected."

-THE THEOLOGICA GERMANICA OF MARTIN LUTHER, 1518 edition, translated by Bengt R. Hoffman, 1980


"And they were originally rooted in oral cultures that typically rely heavily on the cliches and formulas that members of literate cultures self-consciously seek to avoid. Walter J. Ong, the distinguished literary scholar, noted that the formulas 'are necessary for history' because they facilitate the preservation of knowledge, which is then available when needed. Oral cultures depend heavily upon recall and recognition and consequently favor verbosity, repetition, standardization of themes, and narrative, which wraps the knowledge to be preserved and transmitted in tales and songs easy to remember."

-Elizabeth Fox-Genovese and Eugene D. Genovese, THE MIND OF THE MASTER CLASS: History and Faith in the Southern Slaveholders' Worldview, 2005


"The Bishop who lived to serve the people he loved reminds us to pray; the Educator who lived to serve the people he loved reminds us to think; and the General who lived to serve the people he loved reminds us to dare to fight those battles of this life which we must fight in order that the children of our own land will not one day say of us..."

-Excerpt from "The Leonidas Polk Bi-Centennial Address," delivered at the Monument to the Confederate Dead, Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10, 2006


The Allegory Enhanced along the Pilgrims' Road

Katabasis & Anabasis


The Allegory Developed in Proper Turn

AnRl41 · ClEd56 · RgWr61

· Original · Historical

Traditional · Intentional · Preventional

Evangelical · Societal · Rhetorical


Creation · Redemption · Sanctification



Guiding Western Moralism


"The freedom with which Dr. Johnson condemns whatever he disapproves is astonishing; and the strength of words he uses would, to most people would be intolerable."

-Miss Burney, quoted in MEMOIRS OF MADAME D'ARBLAY, by Mrs. Helen Berkeley, 1844


Joseph Nollekens' Dr. Johnson

Dr. Johnson Monument,

Dr. Johnson Monument, St. Paul's Cathedral


From; viewed 2/6/2014:

Samuel Johnson


In the south transept of Westminster Abbey is the grave of Dr Samuel Johnson, lexicographer and critic. He lies just in front of Shakespeare’s memorial. The inscription in brass letters reads:

SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL.D Obiit XIII die Decembris Anno Domini MDCCLXXXIV Aetatis suae LXXV

which can be translated:Samuel Johnson, Doctor of Laws, died 13 December in the year 1784, aged 75.

Above the grave is an 18th century bust by sculptor Joseph Nollekens, which was presented to the Abbey in 1939 by G.H.Tite. It just has the name JOHNSON at the base. In 1790 the Dean and Chapter had given permission for the erection of a monument to Johnson but this was never actually put up (a statue was erected at St Paul’s cathedral in 1796 and this might have been the monument which had been intended for the Abbey).


Samuel was born in Lichfield on 7 September 1709, a son of Michael Johnson and his wife Sarah. He was educated in that town and later at Oxford. After an unsuccessful attempt at being a schoolmaster he came to London to make his fortune in 1737, with his friend David Garrick (the famous actor who is buried next to him). In 1735 he married a widow, Elizabeth Porter (d.1752). After periods of poverty and ill health he made his name with essays entitled The Rambler and published his great Dictionary of the English Language in 1755. One of his last great works was The Lives of the Poets. He died on 13 December 1784 aged 75. A wreath is laid on his grave each year on the anniversary of his death.


From; viewed 8/20/2010:

Samuel Johnson Tercentenary 2009

“Samuel Johnson, a man whose talents, acquirements, and virtues, were so extraordinary, that the more his character is considered, the more he will be regarded by the present age, and by posterity, with admiration and reverence.”

(James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, 1791)

Welcome to the Samuel Johnson Tercentenary web site. This site contains information about the celebrations to mark the 300th anniversary of the birth of Samuel Johnson, which falls on 18 September 2009.

Johnson usually regarded anniversaries as occasions for repentance and pious resolution. On his 72nd birthday, however, he decided that “some little festivity was not improper” and “had a Dinner”. Our own festivities will be rather more extensive. They commenced with a modern-day Johnson, Garrick and their horse walking from Lichfield to London. Other clubbable, world-wide events will include conferences, exhibitions, tours, lectures and a banquet.

Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson, 1709-1784, was widely regarded as the leading literary figure of his time, so much so that it is often referred to as the “Age of Johnson”. He was (amongst other things) a poet, biographer, lexicographer, essayist, editor and reviewer.


Johnson was born in Lichfield in 1709, the son of a bookseller. (His home is now the Samuel Johnson Birthplace Museum .) He was educated at Lichfield Grammar School and at Pembroke College, Oxford, but was forced by poverty to leave Oxford without taking a degree. He returned to Lichfield and worked in his father’s shop for a while, as well as finding employment (rather unsuccessfully) as a tutor.
In 1735, he married Elizabeth Porter, a widow who was 23 years older than him. Using her money, they established a school at Edial, near Lichfield, but it failed, and in 1737 Johnson departed for London, hoping to make a living by his writing. With him went his friend and former pupil, David Garrick.

Grub Street

When he arrived in London, his only source of income was his writing: it was to remain so for the next twenty-five years. His publications were prolific and demonstrated an extraordinary range, from his account of the life of the poet Richard Savage (still considered a classic of biography) to reports of the debates in Parliament. He published his long poems London and The Vanity of Human Wishes, and became an editor of, and contributor, to the Gentleman’s Magazine.

He gradually acquired a reputation in the literary world, and in 1746 he was commissioned by a consortium of printers to write a dictionary of the English language. At this time he rented 17, Gough Square, London, which served as both home and workshop for the Dictionary. While working on the Dictionary, he also published a series of essays under the name The Rambler, and contributed to The Adventurer essays. (He was later to write another series as The Idler.)

Elizabeth Johnson died in 1752, plunging Johnson into the depression to which he was subject all his life. Shortly afterwards, Francis Barber, a young boy who had been a slave in Jamaica joined Johnson’s household as a servant. He (and later his wife and children) was to live with Johnson for over thirty years, and to become his heir.

The Dictio

The Dictionary of the English Language was eventually published in 1755. It was not (as is often claimed) the first English dictionary, but it was certainly the most important one published up to that date. It went through numerous editions, and was not superseded until the publication in 1928 of the Oxford English Dictionary.

Johnson was often short of money, even being arrested for debt. In 1759 he published Rasselas, a short oriental story, intended to raise the money to pay for his mother’s funeral.

In 1762, at the age of 53, he at last achieved financial security when he was awarded a government pension. His later major works included an edition of Shakespeare’s plays and a series of biographical and critical studies of the major poets, originally published as prefaces to a large collection of their works, but subsequently published separately. They are usually known as The Lives of the Poets.


In 1763 he met the young Scottish lawyer James Boswell, a keen admirer of Johnson and subsequently a close friend. In 1773 they toured Scotland together. Both published accounts of their travels, Johnson’s Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland and Boswell’s Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson.

This stage of his life is familiar to reader of Boswell’s Life of Johnson, the period when Johnson was the established leader of the literary world, and was at the centre of a circle of some of the greatest figures in art and literature, including Joshua Reynolds, Edmund Burke and Oliver Goldsmith.

Another important friendship began in 1765, when Johnson met Henry and Hester Thrale. For almost 20 years they provided him with what were effectively second (and third) homes with them in Southwark and Streatham. Hester Thrale was one of a number of women writers whom Johnson encouraged; others included Charlotte Lennox, Hannah More and Fanny Burney. The diaries of Hester Thrale and Fanny Burney provide a counterpoint to Boswell’s account.


Johnson’s last years were marked by illness, the death of several friends, and the breakdown of his friendship with Hester Thrale. He died on 13 December 1784, and was buried in Poets’ Corner in Westminster Abbey.


 From; viewed 8/20/2010:

Samuel Johnson: A Chronology

1709: Samuel Johnson is born in Lichfield, England to Michael and Sarah Johnson.

1728: Johnson enrolls in Pembroke College, Oxford. Unable to continue paying his bills, he withdraws little more than a year later.

1731: "Messia," Johnson’s Latin translation of Alexander Pope's "Messiah" is published in Husbands's Miscellany, the first of his works to see print.

1735: Johnson marries Elizabeth (Jervis) Porter, a widow twenty years his senior. With the inheritance from her late husband, he opens a grammar school. Attracting few pupils, he is forced to close it in January 1737.

1737: With his friend and former pupil David Garrick, Johnson sets off for London to pursue a career as an author.

1738: Johnson's poem London, his first important literary work, is published anonymously.

1746: Johnson begins work on his dictionary, and writes A Short Scheme for Compiling a New Dictionary of the English Language, published the following year.

1749: David Garrick’s Drury Lane Theatre performs Johnson’s tragedy Irene. Johnson publishes his poem The Vanity of Human Wishes.

1750: Johnson issues the first of his twice-weekly series of essays entitled The Rambler. It will continue for two years, totaling 208 installments, all but seven written by Johnson.

1752: Elizabeth Johnson dies. Johnson never remarries.

1755: After nine years of labor, A Dictionary of the English Language is published.

1759: Johnson writes The Prince of Abyssinia (better known as Rasselas), in just one week’s time, to pay the expenses of his mother’s final illness and funeral.

1762: Johnson is granted a royal pension of £300 per year.

1763: Johnson meets James Boswell for the first time.

1764: Sir Joshua Reynolds founds the Club, its membership drawn from Johnson’s circle of friends.

1765: Johnson publishes his long-awaited edition of the works of Shakespeare.

1773: Boswell and Johnson tour Scotland together; the trip forms the basis of Johnson’s A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775) and Boswell’s The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1785).

1779: Johnson publishes the first volumes of his Prefaces, Biographical and Critical, to the Works of the English Poets, completed in 1781.

1784: Johnson dies on December 13th, at age 75. He is buried in Westminster Abbey the following week.



The Club: Joshua Reynolds and Samuel Johnson, including Edmund Burke, et al.


"a very good hater"

From Ebenezer Cobham Brewer's DICTIONARY OF PHRASE AND FABLE, 1898:

I love a good hater.
I like a man to be with me or against me, either to be hot or cold. Dr. Johnson called Bathurst the physician a “good hater,” because he hated a fool, and he hated a rogue, and he hated a Whig; “he,” said the Doctor, “was a very good hater.”


"Dr. Johnson seemed to delight in drawing characters; and when he did so con amore, delighted every one that heard him. Indeed, I cannot say I ever heard him draw any con odio, though he professed himself to be, or at least to love, a good hater."

-Miss Reynolds, in James Boswell's THE LIFE OF SAMUEL JOHNSON, Vol. IX, New Edition, 1844


"The Tyranny of Liberalism, published in 2008, established James Kalb, a writer and attorney, as one of the most incisive social, intellectual, and political critics of the 21st century. Against Inclusiveness furthers the argument of the first book, while expanding upon it in interesting directions. The book's thesis, briefly stated, is that what we call 'diversity' is not diverse at all but, instead, a monolithic concept, matching and reflecting the monolithic thought of the increasingly monolithic social structure that has been developing and imposing it upon Western Society for a generation at least."

-Chilton Williamson, Jr.'s review of James Kalb's AGAINST INCLUSIVENESS: How the Diversity Regime is Flattening America and the West and What to Do About It, in Chronicles, Vol. 37, No. 12, December 2013


At; February 18, 2014:

“I obviously didn’t see those two young men do it, but there’s no doubt in my mind that they did it,” McMillan said. “I wish I could have done more. If I would have seen what they did before I lost sight of them, I may have tried to hold one of them down. I hope and pray that they find whoever did this. I know I could identify them if I saw them again.”


At; February 19, 2014:

But still nothing has changed. These events continue to happen semester after semester, and year after year. All of our actions seem fruitless and impotent, leaving us broken, scared, humiliated and with burning, difficult questions: What do we do about it? How do we stop these events from transpiring? How do we fight an idea?


We offer hope to this university community and to the world. Hope that if we come together, we can achieve new heights. Heights where when we hear hatred, when we see prejudice, when we encounter judgment, we are compelled to love. It is time for us to reach these heights and create a welcoming environment for all.We, as a community, must take the power from this event and show our rejection of it. It is our turn to show our own power and not be swayed by the fear perpetuated by a few.


At; February 20, 2014:

“It’s a sad commentary on a small group of students that has not evolved to a consciousness that all men are created equal and that everyone is the same in the sight of God,” Ball said.


At; February 24, 2014:

Don’t get me wrong — I truly love Ole Miss and Mississippi. I love it enough to try my hardest to make it better. I love many of our traditions and appreciate Mississippi’s unique heritage. However, it would be in our university’s best interest to celebrate heritage that’s inclusive of all Mississippians, not just a few.

The status quo is unacceptable.


At; February 24, 2014:

News spread Friday that the three suspects the university is seeking in the Meredith statue investigation were members of the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity at The University of Mississippi. The fraternity, known as Sig Ep, expelled all three members immediately, and the fraternity’s national headquarters indefinitely suspended the chapter while the investigation is underway.

Some students at Ole Miss are discussing the role that Greek life plays in fostering racial problems on campus.

“It is challenging to directly identify the root of the problems that African-American students experience at Ole Miss, particularly those related to race,” said Quadray Kohlheim, president of the Ole Miss Black Student Union. “However, history itself gives proof that members from (Interfraternity Council) Greek life contribute heavily to this issue.”

The Interfraternity Council, commonly referred to as IFC, is the group of 16 traditionally-white fraternities on campus. There are three traditionally-black fraternities on campus, but they fall under National Pan-Hellenic Council, not the Interfraternity Council.

Before the allegations became public, the presidents of all 16 Interfraternity Council fraternities on campus signed a letter Thursday condemning the desecration of the statue.

Kohlheim said he believes the culture of Greek life in general allows “a homogenous mindset” that leads to acts of racism and discrimination.

“I would not dare isolate the problem solely to the IFC, and I would like to commend the strong statement made by its leaders,” he said. “Their response reflects progress of our institution.”

Sig Ep President Jeremy Smith said that the actions of the three students in no way represent the values of the fraternity itself.

“When we learned that these students were responsible, we were offended and outraged,” Smith said. “The act of desecrating a statue of a civil rights leader like James Meredith represents a culture that should be long gone and one that has absolutely no place in our fraternity.”

For many non-Greek students on campus, the negative perceptions caused by some members of the Greek system is discouraging.

“This (incident) doesn't change my opinion of Greek life, it reinforces it,” senior journalism major Ryan Rigney said. “It’s not a coincidence that many frat boys fail to act like paragons of tolerance and inclusion. Exclusion and rejection of people who differ from the norm are fundamental to the system they are a part of.”

Other leaders in the Ole Miss Greek community were quick to discredit any negative connotations caused by similar incidents in the past.

“It’s such a shame that these three individuals would do something like this,” said William Burns, president of Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity said. “These actions go against everything we stand for as a Greek community. We are tired of the negative perceptions to Greek life, our university and the state of Mississippi because of a small number of ignorant people.”


At; February 26, 2014:

As we deal with feelings of hurt and frustration, I encourage us all to respond to hate with love – recognizing that a component of love is holding each other accountable for our actions. In that spirit, the university police, aided by an Ole Miss Alumni Association $25,000 reward, led an intensive investigation that identified suspects in a matter of days. At the request of University Police and university leadership, the FBI was asked to take the lead on the case. Our purpose in doing this was to assure the most thorough and objective investigation with the best potential for the fullest accountability.


So let’s consider some of our ongoing efforts at improving diversity and being inclusive. Just this past weekend, we hosted consultants who helped us systematically review our symbols and campus names to reflect on opportunities to better tell the full history of the university. Another consultant will be here in the next few days to review our organizational structure and our efforts in diversity and multicultural issues. Both of these consultancies were arranged before last week’s incident and reflect the hard work of the expanded Sensitivity and Respect Committee.


Much has been done. But our work is not complete. I offer my encouragement to those who have already engaged. And I urge others to step up to the important work ahead of us. Every one of you can make a difference. Each of us can take responsibility for stopping the next act of hate and instead foster the next demonstration of love, civility and respect.


Report, Findings and Recommendations of the Extended Sensitivity and Respect Committee; undated, circa 2012-2013, excerpt:

A complete list of the recommendations and their rationale is given in the main report, but here are some of the key recommendations:

• Develop and plainly display a clear message that explains our institutional commitment to diversity

• Evaluate current administrative structure and increase resources to support diversity efforts

• Create a culture of research excellence related to race

• Enhance our communications and marketing strategies to ensure that race and inclusiveness are a central part of our messages

• Better prepare our faculty and staff to respond to and address incidents of bias

• Conduct a review of all of our divisive symbols

• Adopt a comprehensive, holistic diversity plan with strategies tied to measurable goals

• Incorporate an emphasis on racial climate and diversity into all aspects of university planning and assessment

• Provide an ongoing assessment of campus climate

• Engage diverse, prospective students earlier (with an emphasis on Mississippians) and aid in their transition to UM

• Initiate a new student program (or enhance our current offerings) to more intentionally educate students about our commitment to inclusion and reinforce our shared values

• Further explore how we engage diverse alumni

(Source:; viewed March 2, 2014)


Under Construction

RA 1986, MRRR 1989, MMD 1998, LH 2004, SP 2010, Theo Div.


From; 5/14/2014:

"The University is committed to serious scholarship and to the preparation of an educated ministry," explains John M. McCardell Jr., vice-chancellor of the University of the South. "As part of our broader, long-range vision, we want to see students matriculating here from across the Anglican Communion. Dr. Tengatenga's appointment underscores this global orientation as we seek to increase Sewanee's diversity in both the college and The School of Theology."



UGA Div. Inc.

From; May 5, 2014:

A lawsuit accuses the University of Georgia of inhibiting free speech by limiting demonstrations to two areas on its Athens campus.

The lawsuit, filed last week by the Alliance Defending Freedom on behalf of a UGA student group, charges that the university’s two areas make up less than 1 percent of the main campus. The “Free Expression Areas,” at the Tate Student Center Plaza and the Memorial Hall Plaza, are open for speeches and demonstrations on weekdays between 8 a.m. and 9 p.m., according to UGA policy. The gatherings are scheduled through the associate dean of students. Any group wanting to gather outside the designated time must get approval from the dean at least 48 days in advance and receive a permit.

ADF, an American conservative Christian nonprofit group, is suing on behalf of the UGA chapter of the Young Americans for Liberty. In March, UGA prohibited the student group from displaying a nation’s debt clock in an area outside one of the free speech zones.

UGA officials declined to comment on the pending lawsuit, which they had not seen, university spokesman Tom Jackson said Monday.

“There is clearly no shortage of expression here at UGA,” Jackson said. “It’s something that we value greatly, as demonstrated by the numerous demonstrations we’ve had at UGA.”

Last week, a group of students held a demonstration protesting a state University System policy banning illegal immigrants from attending some state institutions, which currently includes UGA.

The free speech lawsuit was first reported by Campus Reform, a watchdog group that monitors higher education bias and abuse. The suit names UGA President Jere Morehead and other UGA administrators as defendants in the case.


At; October 9, 2013:

The university’s Extended Sensitivity and Respect Committee released a report Tuesday that makes recommendations to improve the campus’ racial climate, including changing the names of two campus buildings and striving to support campus symbols that represent all people on campus.

Following the Nov. 6, 2012, election night protest, Chancellor Dan Jones challenged the committee to study race relations with the goal of improving the racial climate on campus. Jones wrote a response letter to the report and listed individual implementation plans for each of the 12 main recommendations.

“It is always important to stop and take the measure of our progress and what work remains,” said Susan Glisson, member of the committee and Executive Director of the William Winter Institute for Racial Reconciliation. “This process has been important in illuminating areas that still need more work and helps to provide a road map for proceeding.”

One of the specific actions the committee suggested will be visually apparent to anyone on Ole Miss’ campus. The committee recommended to rename Vardaman Hall, and to consider renaming the Paul B. Johnson Ballroom, which is more familiarly known as the Johnson Commons. James K. Vardaman and Paul B. Johnson, Jr. were both Mississippi politicians who openly promoted white supremacy.

Additionally, university symbols were mentioned in the report. Committee Co-chair and Assistant Provost Donald Cole said the committee’s discussions and inclusion of that section of the report was “in some ways controversial itself.”

“Campus symbols, particularly those that became associated with the university during Jim Crow segregation and the resistance to civil rights (e.g., the Confederate monument, Rebels, Colonel Rebel/Colonel Reb and Dixie) are a source of contention among different members of the university community,” the report states. “UM should strive to support symbols that represent all on our campus.”

In Jones’ response to the divisive symbols section, he wrote: “A consultant will be engaged to help with this review; this process will be begun in the first half of this academic year with a goal of beginning the review within the academic year.”

The committee is a standing university committee, but Jones appointed additional members to the committee after the election night protest, including students.

Cole said that there is no connection between the timing of the report’s release and this week’s UM Pride Week, Racial Reconciliation Week or the incident at the showing of the Oct. 1 performance of “The Laramie Project.” Once the committee finished its report and recommendations, it then submitted the report to Chancellor Dan Jones for approval.

“We (as a committee) took whatever time that was needed to produce a quality product,” said Cole, “(Jones) said that it was a quality product. I sure hope that it is, but time will tell.”

Another main issue addressed in the report involves freshman experience and the way race is addressed to new students on campus – something Cole says the committee agreed on 100 percent.

“I’m excited about the work around improving the freshman experience and in introducing the importance of learning to be respectful in a diverse world to students who may not have been in very diverse environments before,” Glisson said.

ASB President Gregory Alston served as a student representative to the committee. He stated that while no specific actions have been taken to enact the committee’s recommendations, he has a positive, optimistic outlook for the committee’s mission.

“The report was needed,” Alston said. “It addresses issues that were brought up here at the university, and the community did a great job in producing this report. The university will benefit in moving forward. ”


At; February 24, 2014:

Do you think that IFC Greek life at Ole Miss plays a significant role in the problems that have occurred on our campus?


I dare not isolate the problem solely to the IFC, and I would like to commend the strong statement made by the IFC, which appeared in the DM on last week. It truly spoke volumes that this segment of the student population willingly took a stance on the issue. Their response reflects progress of our institution. It is my hope that in the future they will work even more with groups such as BSU, NPHC, etc., to find a way to bridge that gap between all cultures, backgrounds, and orientations of all students at the University of Mississippi.


Lastly, it is time for the university to put its money where its mouth is. It is time for funds to be directed toward areas that will have a substantive and long-term impact toward progress and diversity. I am hopeful that this will happen, considering the university’s announcement of the Center for Inclusion and Cross Cultural Engagement and other departments alike.


At; February 25, 2014:

The reality is that both of these narratives are partially true. Over the past couple decades, university and ASB officials have made conscious decisions- removing Colonel Reb, banning the Confederate flag at football games, etc.- in order to move the university beyond its shameful past. On the other hand, as in events such as the protests following the 2012 presidential elections, “The Laramie Project” incident and the Meredith statue incident, our past continues to rear its ugly head.


At; February 27, 2014:

For some time, I didn’t know how to channel my anger, disgust, frustration, sadness and the many swirling emotions that I’ve experienced over the past week. Frankly, I’m still somewhat in shock, and I think many of us don’t know where we go from here. This wasn’t supposed to happen. And we certainly were supposed to be past such hateful, ignorant actions on our own campus.


Mississippi has not yet reached the “oasis of freedom and justice” that Martin Luther King Jr. called for. We must continue to press forward; we must continue to ask uncomfortable questions; and most importantly, we must continue to speak up and speak loudly against injustice and intolerance.When it is obvious that intolerant, disrespectful bigots don’t have a place here, then The University of Mississippi will stand as a flagship institution of freedom and justice.


At; Febuary 28, 2014:

And we must combat the dangerous, discriminatory “stand your ground” laws, which are extremely subjective and encourage vigilantes in states across the country.


At; February 28, 2014:

Ole Miss Chancellor Dan Jones requested that a consultant come to campus to assess symbols such as monuments, names of buildings and roads and traditions. University of Richmond President Edward Ayers was brought to campus last weekend to handle those responsibilities.

“The University of Richmond went through a very similar thing we are going through now,” Blanton said.


March 4, 2014:

I should know: I am an American. I earned my graduate degrees from Ole Miss. I wrote my dissertation about lynching. I daily walked along picturesque campus drives named "Confederate" and "Rebel." I frequently studied in areas near the Confederate statue, cemetery, and stain-glass window. The invocation of the spirit of the Confederacy conveyed that while I was at Ole Miss, I was not meant to be of Ole Miss.


The abundant Confederate memorabilia reflected in flags and a mascot, personified in a doppelganger of Colonel Sanders, nicknamed "Colonel Reb," challenged the claims of a fully integrated Ole Miss. By 2009, economic expediency played a vital role in the retiring of the symbols that venerated the false romantic valor of the Confederacy.


At; March 4, 2014:

A student march of about seventy-five participants was held on the University of Mississippi campus with the purpose of reminding the Ole Miss community of the recent desecration of the James Meredith statue.

The march, starting noon yesterday, began at the Student Union, proceeded through the Grove and the Circle, passed the Lyceum and ended at the statue. After the students walked, Shan Williams, senior psychology major and leader of the march, gave a short speech expressing her frustrations about the desecration enacted on the statue by university students.

“The university needs to know that we will not be silent,” Williams said.


At; March 5, 2014:

A resolution affirming the city of Oxford’s commitment to diversity passed without opposition yesterday at the bi-monthly Board of Aldermen meeting.

The bill, which recognizes the dignity and worth of all residents, affirms that diversity in Oxford will enhance economic growth by helping attract business and create jobs.

It also recognizes that “all individuals have inherent worth and should be treated with dignity and respect without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, sex, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, sexual orientation, family status, veteran status, disability or source of income.”


“ We decided we needed to encourage the city of Oxford to do the same as Starkville and Hattiesburg. This type of resolution is an important first step to overcoming past stereotypes. We have to be proactive and vocal about our commitment to diversity,” Dickason said.


At; March 6, 2014:

In the revolutionary spirit of many trailblazers before us who continue to show support, we want to see the university continue to promote open dialogue and to implement progressive strategies and policies that will bring forth more than a modicum of change for our university. We as members of the Black Student Union, The University of Mississippi Gospel Choir, Improving Minority Access to Graduate Education, and the National Pan-Hellenic Council are willing to actively work with the administration, and other campus organizations, to see the vision come to its fruition.


At; March 19, 2014:

Just over a month has passed since the Feb. 16 desecration of the James Meredith statue, and university officials say both the FBI investigation and the judicial process to determine university punishment for the three involved students are continuing.

“The judicial council has made no decisions on possible suspensions or expulsions (for the involved students),” University of Mississippi Communications Director Danny Blanton said.

“Obviously, we are approaching the situation with extreme care in order to be fair to all parties involved.”

The three students, who are suspected of involvement and have been the subjects of a university conduct review since Feb. 21, have not been named publicly because of a federal privacy law.


At; April 9, 2014:

Over the past few weeks, the very men that were criticized for their lack of action have been collaborating amongst peers and administrators to be a more inclusive and socially aware community. Several meetings have been held in which administrators and fraternity men have discussed the need for a change within our communities.


At; April 10, 2014:

Last week, opinion articles in the Daily Mississippian called on members of our Greek-letter organizations to make good on their public pledge to take action in opening doors, becoming more inclusive and promoting inclusion. Although it may not be apparent to the broader campus community, we are aware of movement on that front—some Greek-letter organizations are engaged in discussions about how best to move forward. Likewise, we were witness to the inauguration of our new Associated Student Body (ASB) leadership. The new ASB President and Vice President both shared their vision of a united student body and a campus where all students feel welcome all of the time. We are inspired by this shared commitment to make The University of Mississippi a better place, and with this letter we add our words of encouragement.

Our Creed reinforces key values—the values of respect, fairness, and civility. Challenging discussions can test those values, but if we are to have meaningful dialogue and make real progress, it is important to hold those values close. Now is the time that we work together as the family we hold dear. We urge our student leaders to join together in accomplishing the very important goal of making this a better campus for everyone. We will also continue to commit our leadership as an instrument to help our campus community be a more inclusive place for all.

We offer our support to student organizations as they evaluate their practices, embrace diversity, make this a welcoming place for all, and implement real change. We thank you for your leadership and for the hard work that will make this campus a better place.

Dan Jones, M.D.


Brandi Hephner LaBanc, Ed.D.

Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs


At; April 14, 2014:

Immediately following the February 2014 James Meredith statue incident, the IFC fraternity presidents signed a letter joining our university community in expressing our common goal of becoming more inclusive and unified.

Leadership is a key component of Greek life, and we felt compelled to do our part and lead our community in finding ways to make our campus climate more accepting of other cultures and identities.

We appreciate the work done by the university and the encouragement for students to be leaders in producing ideas and plans for achieving progress. To that end, the IFC presidents have been meeting on our own to develop ways to improve the climate of the IFC Greek organizations and ultimately contribute to an improved climate for the entire Greek community.

Not only have we been meeting with each other, but we have been meeting with individual chapter members, national organizations, alumni, campus administrators and faculty to engage in open dialogue and discussion of the issues we face, the problems we wish to fix, the barriers to solving these problems and identifying certain tactics we could use to help our organizations become more inclusive and provide better cross-cultural engagement for our members.

At this time our primary focus is on improving the climate of our organizations. To extend our dialogue into action we have set the following goal: develop the IFC community into one that respects the dignity of each person, seeks an understanding of all cultures and identities and becomes a force for inclusion and cross-culture engagement on the University of Mississippi campus. These are goals that may be passed on to future fraternity presidents who can continue what we have started. We hope our efforts will inspire the entire Greek community, other campus organizations and campus communities across the country to find ways to become more welcoming.

We hope our fellow students and colleagues will recognize this as a sincere effort to set our organizations on a path towards becoming more open to all members of our community, and not simply an effort to improve our reputation or achieve positive press. IFC takes this important work very seriously. We have a long road ahead of us, though we are committed because it is the right thing to do.


William Fowler

William Fowler is the chapter president of Phi Delta Theta Mississippi Alpha and the outgoing director of diversity and multicultural affairs for the Associated Student Body. His words are printed here on behalf of the IFC chapter presidents.


At; April 15, 2014:

“It doesn’t matter where you live, where you go to school; you do what’s right, and that’s what’s important,” said George Worlasi Kwasi Dor, holder of the McDonnell-Barksdale chair of ethnomusicology and associate professor of music at The University of Mississippi.

This is the message of “Brighten the Corner Where You Are,” one of the songs Dor composed for the UM African Drum and Dance Ensemble’s spring concert tonight.

The concert, “Sharing Cultural Diversity Together,” will be performed by students, faculty, alumni and community volunteers who take part in the ensemble. They will be joined by special guest artist Misonu Amu, whose father Ephraim Amu is considered “the father of Ghanaian art music.”

The first act will consist mainly of Ghanaian dances. The purpose of these dances and songs is to teach and inspire curiosity in multiculturalism.


At; April 24, 2014:

As you may have heard, Oxford Mayor Pat Patterson made some offensive and absurd comments this week about diversity on the Square.

Patterson told NewsWatch 99: “ If there were Dollar Generals and Family Dollars out there, you’d have a different demographics [sic].”

He went on to say, “There’s a big diversity, ‘diversity,’ push right now, that I think is, for the most part, silly.”

There are a lot of “silly” things in this world, but working to increase diversity is definitely not one of them.

Diversity — in every sense of the word — is inherently good. It allows for individuals to realize people see the world through many different lenses. It teaches us to respect others’ opinions, and more importantly, to learn from them.

As a public policy leadership major, diversity in policymaking ensures legislators consider how a new bill might impact different groups. Diversity is more than a buzzword: It is an integral part of our society.

Yet, many times, diversity seems to be feared.

When the Oxford City Council passed a diversity resolution several weeks ago, a man who spoke against the document said he worried about the day his wife would have to use a transgender bathrooms.

Seriously — the first thing that comes to your mind when you see “diversity” is transgender bathrooms?

I think there is some truth behind Mayor Patterson’s words.

The Square is exclusive in many ways because of the types of shops there. I, along with many other students, cannot afford to shop at the high-priced boutiques.

But there’s more about the Square than just cost that is prohibitive. There’s a sense, I think, that only certain people are welcome.

This phenomenon is not limited to the Square, however.

Walk around the Grove during football season, and you’ll be hard-pressed to find much diversity.

Personally, I have never felt comfortable in the Grove because I never have a tent where I can spend much time. I think this is partly because I am not a legacy, and I have no family members who attended this university. I’m not trying to cast a negative light on those who are legacies or have strong family connections here. We simply must be cognizant of the fact that, for many students, this type of legacy is not even a possibility for them, as their grandparents were barred from entry into this institution because of the color of their skin.

Go to the Union at lunchtime. Sit in an Honors College class. Look at the yearbook photos of the fraternities and sororities. In all of these situations, barriers divide, dissuade or completely bar some students from inclusion.

There have been steps taken by ASB and other groups to remedy some of the issues listed above, though.

This past football season, ASB introduced “Everybody’s Tent,” which was a great step at making those without a home in the Grove feel more included. If you were a student a few years ago, you may remember the Two + 2 program, started by former ASB President Taylor McGraw. Basically, the program matched you and a friend up with two random people every week, and the four of you would go to coffee or lunch. It was a great opportunity to meet students and faculty from all areas of campus, and I still have friends that I met during that program.

But Two + 2 is now gone, and there’s more that can, and should, be done.

The most memorable class I have taken was in Fall 2012 on the integration of the university. Never have I engaged in such open, honest dialogue with my peers, challenging each other in ways I never imagined possible. Yet, outside of that classroom, I find this campus is lacking in spaces in which students can truly express themselves.

When I visited the University of Chicago last fall, there were coffee shops — many of which were student-run — in what seemed like every building on campus. Instead of commercialized Starbucks, these spaces were each unique and comfortable in a way that I’ve never felt at The University of Mississippi.

In my time as a student here, I’ve seen the consequences of lingering divides on this campus — from the James Meredith statue this semester to the homophobic slurs used during the performance of “The Laramie Project” to the incendiary reactions on campus after the re-election of President Obama.

In the 21st century, diversity is not a thing to be feared.

Until we — students, faculty, staff, community members — wholeheartedly embrace diversity, this university and city will remain burdened by these divisions.


At; April 28, 2014:

University of Mississippi Chancellor Dan Jones sat down with The Daily Mississippian last week to talk about what the university has done in the months following multiple discriminatory incidents of the past two years.

Chancellor Dan Jones and other university officials are expecting reports from two outside consultants about both physical symbols on campus and organizational structure regarding the handling of issues of diversity and inclusivity. The consultants were scheduled to come to campus after the Extended Sensitivity and Respect Committee released a campus climate report in October 2013 that called for outside consultation.

Edward Ayers, president of the University of Richmond and noted historian, visited campus to assess features of campus like building names, street names, statues and other physical symbols.

“(Ayers) has written a great deal about a lot of these things, but he was also a college president that had tried to provide leadership both at his university and in his community about having an honest conversation about race, issues of slavery, Jim Crow, Civil Rights, and he led his university and community in those conversations,” Jones said.

Gregory Vincent, vice president for diversity and community engagement, visited campus to assess the university’s organization structures that deal with issues of diversity and inclusivity.

Jones said universities typically take one of two approaches when dealing with similar issues: a centralized approach, where there is one main office for diversity within a university that reports directly to the chancellor or provost, or a distributed approach, where there are diversity officers in many different offices on campus that report to their superiors, who then report to the provost or chancellor.

Ole Miss currently uses the distributed approach, but the Sensitivity and Respect Committee suggested a reevaluation of whether it was best for the university.

Jones then reached out to Vincent, who led the University of Texas through a reorganization of their approach to diversity.

“Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages,” Jones said. “Because we’ve had reasons to question our environment about race and inclusiveness, the (Extended Sensitivity and Respect Committee) suggested we look at our organizational structure. I decided to bring someone in who works at a university and works with those kinds of responsibilities and in a place where they’ve evaluated that recently in a purposeful way.”

Both Ayers and Vincent are leaders in places with extreme symbolism related to the Confederacy.

Richmond was the capital of the Confederate States of America, and Jones said the University of Richmond has many physical characteristics that tie them to those times. Jones also said the University of Texas has six monuments on their campus that are related to the Confederacy.

Jones requested specific reports from each consultant but is still waiting for them to come in. He hopes that he will receive the reports in the coming days, but does not expect them before the end of the semester. While he was hoping to have the reports by now, he is grateful for the work of the consultants.

“Because we don’t have both reports in, I want to wait so the university leadership can digest those and draft a specific response,” Jones said. “I would have liked to have it completed during this semester, but I’m certainly not disappointed that the consultants are taking a thoughtful, purposeful approach to what is obviously so important for our university and for the broader society right now.”

Since the reports have not yet been returned, Jones declined to disclose many specific actions that may or may not be addressed by the university.

The DM asked Jones about some widely-discussed concerns that many students, alumni and other university supporters have voiced over the past few weeks, including the future of the university’s secondary name “Ole Miss” and the nickname “Rebels.”

“When I receive the consultants’ reports, I will issue a specific response to those reports and there will be clarity in my response,” Jones said. “I have, in the past and on the record, talked about not having any interest in addressing the nomenclature around ‘Ole Miss’ and ‘Rebels.’ Those are terms that are embraced by the vast majority of our people and are seen by the vast majority of the people in the country in positive light of a modern university. The consultants did address those, and we’ll have some further things to say about those in our response to the consultant report.”

After the Feb. 16 desecration of the James Meredith civil rights statue on campus, Jones drafted and released a letter condemning the acts and calling for individual leadership. In the letter, he also shared his views on why it is so important that we own our mistakes so we can improve both the university and the state.

“There are a lot of personal feelings in that letter,” Jones said. “People care what the chancellor of The University of Mississippi thinks about things and I’m grateful for that. Broadly, this is a state with a lot of wonderful traits, but also with a lot of needs. I continue to see this university as the largest hope for leadership for this state to move us from a less-desirable place to a more-desirable place. That’s the most important context – the privilege of leadership of this university and this state that I love so much.”

Also in the letter, the chancellor wrote about how the doors to the university are open from the outside. He continued, “But we have many internal doors that need to be further opened to achieve our ideal of a fully inclusive university.”

Jones expanded a bit on what he meant by that during the interview, giving multiple examples.

One example he gave was when he was a student at the university’s medical school, there were only three women in his class. In order to improve on that injustice, he said, it took deliberate action from the medical school’s selection committee members.

“All of our doors need to be examined,” Jones said. “It requires a very purposeful, intentional plan about how you do that. That means spending some money and exerting lots of effort. A little of it is individual responsibility. I’ve been using a theme in alumni meetings this spring. I’ve asked the groups to look around the room. Think about diversity. Think about age diversity. The average age in those meetings are probably 60-65. Could we do better? Do you know younger alumni? Could you help the alumni association by being purposeful and picking up a phone and inviting those younger people to the meetings?

“Just be sure you are purposeful. It’s the same whether it’s gender or race. Unless you’re intentional about it, people may not know that they are welcome.”

Jones also discussed Greek life and how improvements can be made in that area.

“Certainly the most visible place in our campus organizations where you would see an opportunity for improvement is in Greek life,” Jones said. “Is it complicated? Yes. They’re membership traditions revolve around legal discrimination. How do you work that pathway around being sure that you’re not inappropriately or illegally discriminating? It comes down to being purposeful and intentional, and I do think it’s time for every organization on campus to ask themselves those questions. How open are our doors? What are we doing to promote equity and inclusiveness? It’s time for us, as an entire university, to look at our internal doors.”

Jones said he has received a lot of criticism for being so intentional in his approach regarding some of the incidents that have occurred on campus.

Over the past few weeks, many people have expressed their concerns to The DM about the university’s quickness to publicize some incidents that bring negative local, regional and even national attention. Jones cites the university’s history as a reason that the university is in the spotlight – and often times, the attention here is more than most universities going through similar situations.

“All southern universities resisted integration, but it was here where people died and where there was massive physical resistance. Our history is what it is. We can’t erase it,” Jones said. “We can get mad that the national press comes when things happen here, but we don’t. Instead, we can say that when the spotlight is on us, let’s do something in that spotlight. Let’s do something about the problem. The other reason that we can’t quit talking about it, and this is painful to say, but it’s hard for some of our alums to comprehend that when incidents of hate occur on our campus, there are students who feel unsafe here. And that anxiety that they feel is real. We can’t just let those acts of hate go unchallenged, nor can we we not challenge the things that aren’t perfect about this place. We have to ask ourselves those difficult questions.”

While he said many areas of campus could improve, Jones believes the university has already made vast improvements regarding diversity and race. He pointed to the Associated Student Body and The DM leadership for being intentional about starting conversations about some of the university’s problems.

“As attitudes and actions of broader society in our state and nation continue to evolve on issues of inclusivity and equity, I am glad to see leadership from various parts of our university,” Jones said. “We have large opportunities for progress on inclusion in many campus organizations. I’m encouraged by voices of student leaders including The Daily Mississippian editorial team, ASB leaders and other students calling for visible steps to assure more inclusiveness in student organizations.”

Through it all, Jones feels encouraged by what he has seen in recent weeks. While he cannot control acts of hate, he said he can be an effective leader when the university and state needs it the most, despite personal challenges of the pressures and stresses that come along with being in such a public position during trying times.

“I personally feel that great responsibility from time to time,” Jones said. “This spring has been filled with plenty of good. I’m encouraged that, in spite of national press about less-than-attractive-incidents on our campus, applications and enrollment continue to climb. This is a place where more and more students want to come to get a great education and have a strong, healthy collegiate experience. Most of my time is spent on trying to ensure that we continue moving in that direction as an education institution.”


At; April 29, 2014:

Rep. John Lewis, D-Ga., will be the keynote speaker for The University of Mississippi School of Law’s commencement ceremony May 10.

Lewis was a major player in the civil rights movement. He was an important leader in the March on Washington in 1963 and holds many positions in the U.S. House of Representatives, including senior chief deputy whip for the Democratic Party. He has been awarded numerous honors, including a Presidential Medal of Freedom granted by President Obama.

Law school Dean Richard Gershon spoke of Lewis’ encouraging presence.

“The congressman is an inspiring speaker,” Gershon said. “He will remind the graduates that there is more to life than making money. He was a hero of the civil rights movement, and he made many personal sacrifices to make the country a better place for all of us.”

The only living “Big Six” leader of the civil rights movement, Lewis is especially known for his endeavors to safeguard and establish human rights and civil freedoms. He is also a vital member of the House Ways and Means Committee and its subcommittees.

“He does not have a law degree, but he has had an impact on our laws as a member of Congress,” Gershon said. “As a student at Fisk University, John Lewis organized sit-in demonstrations at segregated lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee. He has been awarded over 50 honorary degrees from prestigious colleges and universities throughout the United States.”

Marcus Williams, student body president of the law school, commented on why Lewis will be especially influential as the graduation speaker.

“He was so important in the civil rights movement, which was made up of young people all participating,” Williams said. “Since we are all graduating and are young, we can appreciate someone doing something at such a young age of especially significant value.”

According to Gershon, Lewis spoke at the dedication of the James Meredith statue on campus, so his return is especially timely.

“Recent events make his return to Ole Miss even more compelling,” Gershon said. “He is a great speaker, and I know his remarks will be memorable.”


At; April 30, 2013:

A new alumni council for the LGBTQ community was formed by the University of Mississippi Alumni Association Executive Committee on April 10.

The Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender and Questioning Alumni and Friends Council is one of only three of its kind in the Southeastern Conference, according to Chancellor Dan Jones.

“Members of our LGBTQ community recently requested from our alumni association an opportunity to form a new affinity group for LGTBQ alumni, just as we have a black alumni group, as a symbol that the association is intentional about welcoming them,” Jones said regarding the formation of the council.

Tim Walsh, executive director of Alumni Affairs, said that when he was approached with the idea, he immediately felt it was the right time to form the council since the LGBTQ is another segment of the population that needed a formal structure to help members feel welcome on campus.

Jones was pleased by the “rapid, positive response” from the alumni board of directors.

University Director of Public Relations Danny Blanton released a statement about the formation of the new council.

“The University of Mississippi has a very diverse alumni, and we are committed to celebrating the differences of our university community and to fostering an environment of inclusivity, civility and respect,” the statement read. “The formation of the Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender and Questioning Alumni and Friends Council by the university’s Alumni Association Executive Committee is a reflection of that commitment to inclusivity and an atmosphere of tolerance.”

The “commitment to inclusivity and an atmosphere of tolerance” Blanton refers to is felt by gay alumnus Tread Strickland. Strickland recently visited campus with his husband with apprehension of how they would be greeted because of their sexual orientation and marital status.

“I had read the national news about the incident at the Matthew Shepherd play and also the recent approval by the legislature of the Religious Protection bill,” Strickland said.

“Everyone we met seemed determined to face the problems in a way that I am not sure much of Mississippi is willing to do.”

Jones sympathized with this sentiment when he said that the formation of this group is a sign of a healthy community.

“I see positive signs that there is a great leadership and people that want to have a civil conversation about making progress,” Jones said.

Strickland felt that the formation of the alumni council “made it clear that we are not alone.”

“I feel so proud that there are alumni like myself who want to help make life better for not only gay students at Ole Miss, but also all students who might feel afraid of being themselves for fear of disapproval,” Strickland said.

Although this society was originally intended for alumni, their long-term goal includes targeting students as well. Walsh recognizes that no future plans are definite because the society is new and still forming.

“We are still in the process of getting alumni to identify and register with the group,” Walsh said.

However, Walsh said that the council intends to aid in the student recruitment and student mentoring processes.

Walsh hopes that a more short-term goal of the LGBTQ Alumni and Friends Council could be to help make the Lavender Graduation Ceremony, recognizing graduating LGBTQ students, a success next year.

Strickland said he hopes the council can one day provide “support in a financial and mentoring way to make Ole Miss as wonderful as it can possibly be.”


At; May 12, 2014:

The new rules would mandate transgender sensitivity training for all coaches and athletic staff members, reports Campus Reform.

In addition, the new policy would replace all gender-specific pronouns – she, her, hers, he, her, hers – with plural equivalents they, them and theirs.

Student-athletes don’t have to attend the required training sessions, but they would be “strongly encouraged.”

The new rules would also require all athletic department paperwork to say “a transgender student-athlete who was designated a female at birth and is/is not taking medically prescribed hormone replacement therapy related to gender transition” for female students who have decided they are now male students.

For male students who have decided they are now female students, the new wording would be “a transgender student-athlete who was designated a male at birth and is/is not taking medically prescribed hormone replacement therapy related to gender transition.”

The current lingo for these individuals at Oberlin is “FTM,” which stands for female-to-male, and “MTF,” which stands for male-to-female.


The changes are part of a draft policy proposed at the end of April entitled “Guidelines for Inclusion and Respectful Treatment of Intercollegiate Transgender Student Athletes.” The policy was developed by Oberlin’s Transgender Participation Advisory Committee.

The policy is expected to be implemented in the fall of 2015, according to Oberlin’s student newspaper.

“It is basically intended to sort of be a 101,” Oberlin junior Emily Clarke, a member of the longwinded committee, told Campus Reform. “We also talk about choice, privilege and agency in presentation of gender and pronouns and ends with trans-allyship dos and don’ts.”

The rationale behind the policy is that it’s wrong to “question people about their transitioning processes,” Clarke explained.

“Don’t use ‘ladies’ or ‘gentlemen’ when addressing a group of people,” she added, according to Campus Reform.


From "Free Speech, RIP: A Relic of the American Past," John Whitehead at, March 3, 2014:

g that it’s not safe to display an American flag in an American public school, on February 27, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that school officials were justified when they ordered three students at a California public high school to cover up their patriotic apparel emblazoned with American flags or be sent home on the Mexican holiday Cinco de Mayo, allegedly out of a concern that it might offend Hispanic students.


The challenge we face today, however, is that government officials have succeeded in insulating themselves from their constituents, making it increasingly difficult for average Americans to make themselves seen or heard by those who most need to hear what “we the people” have to say. Indeed, while lobbyists mill in and out of the White House and the homes and offices of Congressmen, the American people are kept at a distance through free speech zones, electronic town hall meetings, and security barriers. And those who dare to breach the gap—even through silent forms of protest—are arrested for making their voices heard.


From; May 21, 2014:

Free speech zones on public university campuses sound wonderful in the abstract— a special zone just for free speech! But don't be fooled. College's sell the idea of free speech zones like used car salesmen. They make students think that they want the zones, but in reality, students don't want them and they don't need them. And in the end, students realize they've been duped.


Despite courts uniformly striking down university speech zone policies, they persist from coast to coast. "Free speech zones" might sound great at first glance, but they put the First Amendment rights of students in a box and in some cases, a ridiculously small box. When free speech zones prevent students from distributing the US Constitution, we know it is time to put the zones in a box—six feet under—and let students participate freely in the "marketplace of ideas."


"from the nature of democracy"

"If the rhetorical use of the term has any rational content, this probably comes through a chain of deduction from the nature of democracy; and we now that in controversies centered about the meaning of democracy, the air is usually filled with cries of 'prejudice.' If democracy is taken crudely to mean equality, as it very frequently is, it is then a contradiction of democracy to assign interiority and superiority on whatever grounds. But since the whole process of evaluation is one of such assignment, the various inequalities which are left when it has done its work are contradictions of this root notion and hence are 'prejudice' - in the assumption of course being that when all the facts are in, these inequalities will be found illusory. The man who dislikes a certain class or race or style has merely not taken the pains to learn that it is just as good as any other. If all inequality is deception, then superiorities must be accounted the products of immature judgment. This affords plausible ground, as we have suggested, for the coupling of 'prejudice' and 'ignorance.' "

-Richard M. Weaver, THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC, 1953, 1985


"reflect the time of their creation . . . . not endorsing the content."

From; viewed 2/9/2014:

Subject: University of the South- Alumni Magazine
Publisher: University of the South
Digitizing sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation
Book contributor: University of the South, Jessie Ball DuPont Library
Collection: sewanee; americana


Sewanee's alumni magazine, published from 1934-present. Issues beginning in 1934 will be available in this digital collection. These works reflect the time of their creation and as such provide historical and cultural data. They contain content that is no longer representative of the attitudes and policies of the University of the South. In making this data available, the University is not endorsing the content.


"will not be tolerated"

From; April 10, 2011:

America's War Without End

The Civil War's true legacy must be remembered: Then and now, prejudice will not be tolerated.


Following World War II, with Jim Crow under attack, many Southerners reached back to the 1860s for imagery to lend historical drama and credibility to their resistance. After South Carolina’s Strom Thurmond defected from the Democratic Party in 1948 to form the pro-segregation Dixiecrats, he was greeted by supporters in the South waving Confederate flags. That same year, Ole Miss added the playing of “Dixie,” the unofficial anthem of the Confederacy, to its football pageantry. During the integration decisions of the 1950s, Georgia altered its flag to include the Confederate battle emblem. Ultimately, though, the bigotry and brutality of white authorities could not withstand the forces of justice and equality, and the Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964.


As we reflect on the war, let us never forget that it was fought to rid us of a monumental prejudice and that we must remain vigilant about confronting inequality in our time. On the war’s eve, Lincoln hoped that we might be touched by the “better angels of our nature.” That’s a prayer worth repeating now, and always.


"So far is it from being true that men are naturally equal, that no two people can be half and hour together, but one shall acquire an evident superiority over the other."

-Samuel Johnson, in THE LIFE OF SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL. D., by James Boswell, Ninth Edition, 1822


From; March 7, 2014:

That Connected Learning report above makes it painfully clear that the digital and media agenda now in education is tied to a social and economic transformation to a shareable, collaborative consumption economy. The new motto is to be “sharing reinvented through technology.”


The constant drumbeat that these shifts are necessary “begins with questions of equity” and “centers on an equity agenda.”


From; March 4, 2014:

“It is time for the College Board to say in a clearer voice that the culture and practice of costly test preparation that has arisen around admissions exams drives the perception of inequality and injustice in our country,” Mr. Coleman said Wednesday. “It may not be our fault, but it is our problem.”


From; February 9, 2014:

People in diverse urban regions tend to seek shelter in their own little worlds. “Diversity, at least in the short run, seems to bring out the turtle in all of us. … The more ethnically diverse the people we live around, the less we trust them.“

Putnam adds an additional disturbing discovery – that “in-group trust, too, is lower in more diverse settings.” In other words, people also become more distrustful even of members of their own ethnic group.


"to characterize unfavorably any value judgment whatever"

From Richard M. Weaver's "Ultimate Terms in Contemporary Rhetoric, in ETHICS OF RHETORIC, 1963, LANGUAGE IS SERMONIC, 1970:

No student of contemporary usage can be unmindful of the curious reprobative force which has been acquired by the term "prejudice." Etymologically it signifies nothing more than a prejudgment, or a judgment before all the facts are in; and since all of us have to proceed to a great extent on judgments of that kind, the word should not be any more exciting than "hypothesis." But in its rhetorical applications, 'prejudice' presumes far beyond that. It is used, as a matter of fact, to characterize unfavorably any value judgment whatever. If "blue" is said to be a better color than "red," that is prejudice. If people of outstanding cultural achievement are praised through contrast with another people, that is prejudice. And behind all is the implication, if not the declaration, that it is un-American to be prejudiced.

I suspect that what the users of this term are attempting, whether consciously or not, is to sneak "prejudiced" forward as an uncontested term, and in this way to disarm the opposition by making all propositional judgments reprehensible. It must be observed that no people are so prejudiced in the sense of being committed to valuations as those who are castigating others for prejudice. What they expect is that they can nullify the prejudices of those who oppose them, and then get their own installed in the guise of sensus communis. Mark Twain's statement, "I know that I am prejudiced in this matter, but I would be ashamed of myself it I weren't" is a therapeutic insight into the process; but it will take more than a witticism to make headway against the repulsive force gathered behind "prejudice."


From; March 6, 2014:

The informal gathering did not sit well with the school.

“McDaniel College campus officials are conducting in-depth investigation,” college spokesperson Cheryl Knauer said in an interview with Campus Reform Thursday.

“The college partnered with the national headquarters of these student chapters to launch an ongoing investigation,” she said. “Decisions will be forthcoming and sanctions will be determined.”

Knauer said the school’s Office of Student Engagement has been talking to the leaders of all of the Greek houses — not just the two involved — to “review approval processes for events, as well as appropriate themes.”


From; March 7, 2014:

Q: He wrote in The Guardian that words were disappearing from his screen as he was writing about the N.S.A. Has anything like that happened to you?

A: Odd things have happened, but the trouble is, you sound paranoid if you talk about them. We have assumed that a number of people might be trying to monitor what we’ve been doing, so we’ve done our best to take precautions. One thing that Snowden has taught us journalists is that it’s essential to be paranoid.


Edmund Burke Statue, Trinity College, Dublin,
by John Henry Foley

"we cherish them because they are prejudices"

"You see, Sir, that in this enlightened age I am bold enough to confess, that we are generally men of untaught feelings; that instead of casting away all our old prejudices, we cherish them to a very considerable degree, and, to take more shame to ourselves, we cherish them because they are prejudices; and the longer they have lasted, and the more generally they have prevailed, the more we cherish them. We are afraid to put men to live and trade each on his own private stock of reason; because we suspect that this stock in each man is small, and that the individuals would do better to avail themselves of the general bank and capital of nations and of ages. Many of our men of speculation, instead of exploding general prejudices, employ their sagacity to discover the latent wisdom which prevails in them. If they find what they seek, and they seldom fail, they think it more wise to continue the prejudice, with the reason involved, than to cast away the coat of prejudice, and to leave nothing but the naked reason; because prejudice, with its reason, has a motive to give action to that reason, and an affection which will give it permanence. Prejudice is of ready application in the emergency; it previously engages the mind in a steady course of wisdom and virtue, and does not leave the man hesitating in the moment of decision, sceptical, puzzled, and unresolved. Prejudice renders a man’s virtue his habit; and not a series of unconnected acts. Through just prejudice, his duty becomes a part of his nature."

-Edmund Burke, REFLECTIONS ON THE REVOLUTION IN FRANCE, and on the Proceeding in Certain Societies in London Relative to That Event in a Letter Intended to Have Been Sent to a Gentleman in Paris, 1790


Vienna, Austria

“Envisioning success brings you an inspiring image,
but bringing that image to life requires action.”

-Dr. Larina Kase


"[Society], politically regulated, is a state contradistinguished from a state of nature, and any attention to that coalition of interests which makes the happiness of a country is possible only to those whom enquiry and reflection have enabled to comprehend it."

-Dr. Samuel Johnson, LIVES OF THE ENGLISH POETS, 1779-1781


Natchez, Mississippi, 2014


Jackson, Mississippi, March 3, 2014


Confederate Monument, Courthouse Square,
Oxford, Mississippi

In Memory of the Patriotism of the
Confederate Soldiers of
Layfayette County, Mississippi.

They Gave Their Lives to
a Just and Holy Cause.

A Tribute to our Confederate Dead
by Their Surviving Comrades.

The Sons of Veterans Unite in this
Justification of Their Fathers' Faith.

A Loving Tribute to Our
Dead Heroes.

By the Patriotic Daughters of
Lafayette County.


Victorian Era's Best as Aesthetic Prelude to
Miss Ethel Roberts' Unveiling First Sword Over the Gown

Holding Relic of First Texas Secession Flag


1900: Year of First Courageous Unveiling


1959: Year of First Regretful Removal


1963: Year of First Gracious Return




1998: Year of First Direct Attack


2003: Year of Second Precipitous Unveiling


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript

The professor kept his Neo-Manichean credentials before us every chance he got. This was deemed an intolerable act of disrespect by those in power, who, obsessed with their own irrational fears and untreated anxieties, insisted that 'We are all one' and were addicted to expertly injecting the words "us," and "unity," and "together,"
and "everyone," and "shared," and "'we must" into their jarringly paranoid propaganda.

The ever-present, never-ending battles between true Good and lying Evil gave him ample opportunities for making his dividing, or as they called it, "divisive," evaluations. He would say, 'Praise Merciful Holy- there's a rare victory for Christ," and then he would see the next thing, and say, 'Look at that, still yet another victory for Satan.'

Once we recognized that the place was swarmed by the next things, we began to earn our own credentials. We are ever appreciative that he not only showed us how, but taught us why. But we are still bothered by the fact that he was the only one.


From; March 10, 2014:

The current executive with MonolithIC 3D Inc. and co-author with Professor Sandra Stotsky of “Common Core’s Standards Still Don’t Make the Grade” (Pioneer Institute, 2010), exposed the primary social engineering goal of the SAT changes.

“This charade is bound to explode, unless a way is found to force regular state colleges to accept the low-level college-readiness offered by the Common Core,” Wurman said. “The goal is, as the College Board says, to ‘bridge economic and demographic barriers’ rather than assure that college freshmen are adequately prepared.”

“So, in the name of this ‘social justice,’ the SAT is now being dumbed down so it will find more students ‘ready,’ whether truly ready or not,” he said.


From; May 20, 2014:

On Monday, The Leadership Conference joined with several other civil rights and education groups in signing onto a full-page ad placed in the New York Times to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the landmark school desegregation decision in Brown v. Board of Education and to demonstrate their strong, united support for the equitable implementation of the Common Core State Standards.

The Brown decision was handed down on May 17, 1954. In his opinion for the unanimous Supreme Court, Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote that it is “doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education…a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.”

Echoing Warren, the groups said in a joint statement that while Brown “ended legal segregation in America’s public schools in May 1954, separate and unequal resources and expectations have remained a reality for many students. Still, we believe that the opportunities for a bright future and a fair chance to achieve their potential are achievable for all children – and the responsible implementation of the Common Core State Standards is a critical piece in the continuing fight for equity.”

The Common Core State Standards are a set of high-quality math and English language arts standards developed by state education officials across the country to ensure that students graduate with the knowledge and skills they need to be college or career-ready. Currently, 44 states and the District of Columbia have adopted the standards and are working to implement them.

The organizations featured in the ad include the National Urban League, National Action Network, National Council of La Raza, NAACP, Campaign for High School Equity, Alliance for Excellent Education, National Coalition on Black Civic Participation, NALEO Educational Fund and National Indian Education Association.


From; March 7, 2014:

Noting that nearly every news article mentioning Public Advocate refers to it as a “hate group,” King added: “My question is: What does that mean?

“This is not some guy in camo advocating the overthrow of the government in a compound in Iowa. He has views on traditional values and marriage. I want to know why that is hate. I want to know what the criteria is. What does it mean to be a hate group?”

King is requesting all research, electronic or written correspondence, witness testimony, and "all staff memorandums and writings of any kind," including minutes and videos of staff meetings, that were used by SPLC to come to the conclusion that Public Advocate is a "hate group."


From; March 9, 2014:

State Sen. Greg Ball, R-Patterson, also weighed in by issuing a statement last week that read, in part, "Let it be clear, Mount Vernon is equally responsible for the toxic environment that was unfortunately created. Yet unlike Mahopac, Mount Vernon has yet to take action to hold their fan base and students accountable. Two wrongs never make a right, yet unlike Mount Vernon, Mahopac immediately took the accusations seriously and the district has used their appropriate authority to hold the individuals involved accountable."


From; March 10, 2014:

Nonetheless, the White House is determined to make income inequality a pivotal issue for years to come, with President Obama calling it "the defining challenge of our time." Press Secretary Jay Carney denied that the Obama administration's policies damaged income inequality when confronted with the question, suggesting instead that the uptick in the wage gap began under President George W. Bush. Not all on staff stuck to the message so strictly; one pollster publicly described income inequality as an issue that was "a bit overhyped."


From; March 8, 2014:

Asians in the San Gabriel Valley and beyond joined forces Friday to rally against a proposed Senate constitutional amendment that they said would punish their children for working hard to achieve the American Dream.


“This kind of program needs to be established at the high school level, not at the university level,” she said. “It has the possibility of encouraging administrators and officials to discriminate based on skin color. It has a negative impact on high-performing students and Chinese students. We need to put merit and academic performance as a priority.”


“What makes a society and a country better is its diversity and how we interact,” Hernandez said. “Look at the examples of how we purposely try to diversify. Look at Covered California. It would be discriminatory if we did not try to create communities of interest.”


"Living Word, I affirm that all things come from You and through You and to You. You have made the cosmos and all that is in it, and You hold all things together. All truth is derived from You, and You tell me to love You with all my mind as well as all my heart. May I renew my mind with the timeless truths of Your Word and cultivate an ever clearer biblical worldview, so that my thinking will be in accordance with truth. Give me the wisdom to test everything according to the truths of Scripture so that I will think clearly and make sound judgments that are not based on emotions or wrong thinking but on the sure foundation of the written and living Word. I know that only as I think biblically will I be in a position to make the right decisions about my circumstances."

-Dr. Ken Boa, Reflections, March 2014

_____; March 18, 2014:

"Two important features seem to appear across societies that have collapsed," reads the study. "The stretching of resources due to the strain placed on the ecological carrying capacity and the economic stratification of society into Elites and Masses."

In unequal societies, researchers said, "collapse is difficult to avoid.... Elites grow and consume too much, resulting in a famine among Commoners that eventually causes the collapse of society."


So how do we save ourselves? "Collapse can be avoided, and population can reach a steady state at the maximum carrying capacity, if the rate of depletion of nature is reduced to a sustainable level, and if resources are distributed equitably," reads the report.

_____; March 18, 2014:

Florida Memorial University student Kameron Moore spent a night in the emergency room after she says at least five girls jumped her in a dorm room.

“They was cheering on the couch. Saying ‘get her! Get her! Get her!” said Moore.

Moore, a freshman, said it started when she returned from spring break.

“I came back and all my stuff was missing and my room was messed up,” said Moore. “They took my money and they ate all my snacks and stuff.”


“What happens if this do happen to another child. That child may not come out and say what happened. She might not make it out to say anything,” McDuffie said.

“They could have killed her” Moore is afraid to return to school after the incident claiming, “It’s not safe.”

_____; March 13, 2014:

From her office in the peaceful and picturesque Laurel Heights neighborhood, Paula Braveman directs the Center on Social Disparities in Health at the University of California (San Francisco) and writes prolifically on the links between class, race, and health. She spoke recently to National Journal about the complex relationships among opportunity, biology, personal responsibility, and the way Americans live and die.


I think it's silly to say there's no role for personal responsibility. Even those of us who are pretty privileged know that it's hard eating right, exercising. But the mistake is neglecting to ask, what is it that shapes personal behaviors? We have a huge body of literature that documents how behavior is shaped by the contexts in which people live and work. And then how those contexts are shaped by their opportunities. Do we think it's an accident that [good] behaviors are arrayed socioeconomically? Where does this all begin? Is it the choice of a child to be born into a poor family?


From; March 18, 2014:

The Hempstead school board won't renew the contract of a principal who instructed her students not to speak Spanish, in a rapidly-evolving district where more than half of the students, like many Texas schools, are now Hispanic.

Hempstead Middle School Principal Amy Lacey was placed on paid administrative leave in December after reportedly announcing, via intercom, that students were not to speak Spanish on the school's campus. The Hispanic population of the rural area, roughly 50 miles northwest of Houston, is growing quickly, and Latino advocates say that it's important to allow Spanish in public schools.


From; Jan 8, 2013 (updated Jan 25, 2014):

An abuser is a grand manipulator and will sulk, threaten to leave, and emotionally punish you for not following their idea of how things should be. An abuser will try to make you feel guilty any time you exert your will and assert what is right for you. At times the abuser may appear to be apologetic and loving; the abuse begins again when the abuser feels he or she has your forgiveness.

_____; March 15, 2014:

Admission to the country’s top preparatory high schools has always been fiercely competitive. But today, with the price of some private boarding schools like Tabor topping $50,000 a year, affluent families are also lining up for aid — and sometimes shutting out those further down the income ladder. The reality has affected the whole philosophy behind financial aid.

“We used to be trying to open our doors to all students,” said Mr. Marshall, who has worked at independent schools for nearly four decades. “Now, it’s ‘Who can afford us?’ ”

That’s not many families. After paying $200,000 for four years of boarding school, parents are looking at another $200,000 or more for college. And that is for one child.

The magnitude of these costs mean that even parents with annual incomes of more than $300,000 are applying for financial aid and receiving it. Both Tabor and Webb said that about a third of students received aid.


From; March 19, 2014:

The teachers union contract in Ferndale Public Schools in Oakland County gives "special consideration" to applicants who are of "the non-Christian faith."


From; March 18, 2014:

Jackson's strategy borrows from the traditional civil rights era pl "Technology is supposed to be about inclusion, but sadly, patterns of exclusion remains the order of the day," Jackson wrote in a letter released Monday to Apple Inc., Twitter Inc., Facebook Inc., Hewlett-Packard Co., Google Inc. and others.


From; March 20, 2014:

Prejudices exist. It is an undeniable force within our society, so prevalent that it can be found within the most open-minded people and enlightened organizations, subtly taking its toll despite the best of intentions.

To recognize the insidious and pervasive power of prejudice is to take the first step toward defeating it. Assigning blame or guilt, however, will often yield avoidance, denial, and defensiveness. Understanding that prejudicial thinking can be greatly diminished through commitment and education will bring people together to successfully solve this shared problem. It is toward this end that Beyond Prejudices is committed.


From; circa 2013:

On top of this, those who embrace “certainty-seeking faith” tend to become narrow-minded, for honestly trying to see things from other peoples’ point of view might lead them to question their faith and thereby jeopardize their “salvation.“ In fact, this model can easily lead people to develop learning phobias, for if you dare to read broadly and learn to see things from other people’s point of view, you might uncovering facts that could shake your certainty and thus displease God. I’m convinced this explains why Christians, especially conservative Christians, have a well-deserved reputation in the broader culture for being narrow-minded.


From; March 19, 2014:

"The Georgia state government's right wing agenda promotes corporate greed over people's needs; denies healthcare to over 600,000 uninsured Georgians; has cut over $7.6 billion from public educa
tion in the past 10 years; accelerates income inequality by restricting worker's rights and benefits; attacks women's reproductive freedom; promotes bigotry toward the LGBT community, enables gun violence through Stand Your Ground and Carry Guns Anywhere laws; and restricts our voting rights," Moral Monday's press release states.

"We are here today as the NAACP, as labor, as faith, as a broad coalition of the 'ain't going to take it no more.’ To say that we the people, finally means we the people. Not just the well oiled and silk stocking… persons of the elite, but everybody. The Legislators and Governor have put politics over people for too long," Rev. Johnson said.

"Here is why they are desperate in passing local legislation to reduce the number of seats on Boards and Commissions, because they know a change is coming to Georgia," Rev. Johnson said.


"After the secret initiation at Sewanee, she gained an unusual and always correct insight into other's motives and traits. For instance, she looked at the protesters, and spoke their aspirations, sounding as if in a trance: 'All we want and demand in life is an unfair advantage.' Then she came out of whatever thing she was in, looked at each of us straight in the eyes, and said, 'And they say they deserve it and that we should pay for it. If we say we want to keep what's ours, they'll deem us offensive, call us hateful, and then attack.' "

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


From; April 16, 2014:

Boston (April 16, 2014) – Senator Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.), a member of the Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee, introduced legislation to examine the prevalence of hate crime and hate speech on the Internet, television, and radio to better address such crimes. The Hate Crime Reporting Act of 2014 (S.2219) would create an updated comprehensive report examining the role of the Internet and other telecommunications in encouraging hate crimes based on gender, race, religion, ethnicity, or sexual orientation and create recommendations to address such crimes.


From; 5/24/2014:

Oklahoma-Lawmakers-Overwhelmingly-Vote-To-Repeal-Common-Core-Standards; The Oklahoma legislature voted overwhelmingly Friday night to repeal the Common Core math and English standards for its state’s schools and to replace them with standards developed by the state. The bill now heads to Gov. Mary Fallin’s (R) desk for her signature.


"We made our pilgrimage through Louisiana and found a fine hand-embellished photographic copy of Sewanee's 'Sword Over the Gown' hanging in the Nicholls State University Library in Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish. This is the locale of Leonidas Polk's Leighton Plantation and his second St. John's Church, which he organized in 1843 and consecrated in 1845. The archivest told us that an Episcopalian student group had anticipated that The University of the South would give to them its own original portrait of the Bishop-General. Unlike Sewanee's original painting, its gift of the copy to Nicholls State remains unmolested by vandals. We told the archivest that Sewanee should have made a copy for itself and given the original to the students, because obviously Polk is safer in Louisiana than he is in Tennessee."

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript




Canterbury Club members are very hopeful that this original painting of Leonidas Polk can be obtained from the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee. "The Fighting Bishop of the Confederacy" founded several Episcopal churches in the Nicholls area and also "Sewanee." If an original painting cannot be obtained, and original will be commissioned by the club.

-The Nicholls Worth, March 7, 1963


The Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana's
circa 1965 Baccalaureate speaker at Nicholls State College


"Sword Over Gown," a photographic copy of an original painting of the Right Reverend Leonidas Polk by E.F. Andrews (1900) in being exhibited in the Humanities and Sciences Division of Polk Hall. Nicholls received the copy as a gift from the University of the South, Sewanee Tenn., through the efforts of the NSC Canterbury Club.

-The Nicholls Worth, February 10, 1966


Protestant Episcopal Canterbury Club and"Sword Over the Gown";
1966 LA PIROGUE of Nicholls State College


Nicholls State College (now University), circa 1963-1965;
yearbook and The Nicholls Worth student newspaper:

Ground-breaking for Polk Hall

Polk Hall under construction


March 18, 1965

April 1, 1965

Polk Hall in flames


Nicholls State as Memorial to Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls:

The university is named in honor of Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls, who was born on Aug. 20, 1834, in Donaldsonville, La. After graduating from West Point, he practiced law in South Louisiana. He rose to the rank of brigadier general in the Civil War, during which he was a prisoner of war and lost his left arm and leg. He returned to his Napoleonville law practice, and the Louisiana State Democratic Party nominated him for governor in 1876. His election is generally considered to mark the end of Louisiana’s political Reconstruction and the re-establishment of “Home Rule.” During his second tenure as governor (1888–1892), he successfully opposed the corrupt Louisiana Lottery Company. After completing two gubernatorial terms, he was named chief justice to the Louisiana Supreme Court. He retired to his Thibodaux home in 1911 and died in 1912.

(Source:; viewed 3/21/2104)


Born: August 20, 1834 in Donaldsonville, Louisiana

Political Affiliation: Democrat

Religious Affiliation: Episcopalian

Education: Jefferson Military Academy, U.S. Military Academy at West Point and University of Louisiana (Tulane)

Career Prior to Term: Lawyer and Confederate General

How He Became Governor: Elected in 1876 bringing the Reconstruction Era to a close; re-elected in 1888
Career after Term: Chief Justice and Associated Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court

Died: January 4, 1912 in Thibodaux, Louisiana

A conservative Democrat who looked at the antebellum period as a golden age in Louisiana, Francis R. T. Nicholls embodied the "Bourbon" or planter approach to less government-low taxes, few official services and little involvement by blacks in the political processes.

Nicholls became Governor as part of the national compromise of 1877. In return for Louisiana's presidential electoral votes, Rutherford B. Hayes recognized Nicholls' victory over Stephen B. Packard.

Nicholls still had to determine which of the rival legislatures would act as the official institution. Nicholls convinced some Republicans to join his Democratic faction to give it the necessary quorum.

His first administration battled three corrupt men with great power: State Treasurer, Edward Burke; Samuel James, operator of the convict lease system, and Lieutenant Governor Louis Wiltz, a defender of the Louisiana Lottery.

Wiltz presided over the Constitutional Convention of 1879 which reapportioned the legislature, moved the capital back to Baton Rouge, lowered taxes and cut a year from Nicholls' term.

Nicholls fought the corrupt Louisiana Lottery throughout his second term. He lost the battle when the state Supreme Court revoked his dissolution of the lottery. Nicholls won the war, however, when the Federal government outlawed the use of mails to sell lottery tickets.

Nicholls later became a Supreme Court Justice himself, serving until his retirement in 1911.

He died in Thibodaux in 1912.

(Source:; viewed 3/20/2014)


Nicholls State University Library


Francis Tillou Nicholls, 1834-1912,
Brigadier-General in the Army of the Confederacy. Governor of Louisiana, 1877-80 and 1888-92,
and Chief Justice, 1892-1904, and Associate Justice, 1905-11, of the Supreme Court of Louisiana.
After a photograph from life and presented by the Rotary Club of Thibodaux, Louisiana, in 1948



Nicholls, Guion, Polk, and THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH:

"On April 26, 1860, F.R.T. Nicholls married Caroline Zilpha Guion, the daughter of native Mississippian George Seth Guion. G.S. Guion, of Huguenot blood, was a sugar planter in Thibodaux, Louisiana, and a close associate of Rt. Rev. Leonidas Polk. Guion was a founding Trustee of THE UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH in 1857 while serving as a lay representative from the Diocese of Louisiana. He had earlier donated the land upon which Bishop Polk built St. John's Episcopal Church and is buried there with his two wives in the cemetery."

-From The LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


"As the fateful Civil War approached, Guion took the position of immediate secession and supported not only Louisiana's removal from the Union but also the inclusion of the Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana in a newly formed 'National Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America.' ... Guion died on October 30, 1861 ... 'one whose demeanor was composed and diginfied... his manners as well as in his character... was a model of the true Southern gentleman.' "




Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls

1834 August 20 Born in Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, Louisiana. His father was Thomas Charles Nicholls, a native of Maryland who practiced law in Donaldsonville and later became a District Judge and the First president of the Temperance Society. His mother was Louisa Hannon Drake of New York. Francis was educated at the Jefferson Academy in St. James Parish.

1851 Appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York.

1855 Graduates from the USMA 12th in a class of 34. Commissioned a brevet 2nd Lt. of the 2nd Artillery Regiment and serves briefly at Fort Myers, Florida and California.

1856 Resigns his commission due to health problems and studies law at the University of Louisiana (later Tulane U.) but leaves before he gains a degree to pass the bar and open a practice in Napoleonville.

1860 April 26 Marries Caroline Zilpha Guion. They will have one son and five daughters.

1861 Helps to raise an infantry company and is elected Captain. He is later appointed a Lt. Col. of the 8th Louisiana Infantry Regiment and will fight at the first battle of Manassas.

1862 May 25 Loses his left arm at the Battle of Winchester.

1863 May 4 Loses his left foot at the Battle of Chancellorsville where he commanded the 2nd La. Brigade as a Brig. General.

1864 Defends Lynchburg, Virginia and then controls the Conscript Bureau of the Trans-Mississippi Department until the war ends.

1865 Resumes his law practice in Assumption Parish.

1876 Nominated for governor by the Democrats and elected by a majority of 8,000 votes, but the Republican controlled State Returning Board cites irregularities and declares S. B. Packard the winner. Nicholls takes his seat, establishes a defacto government and is later recognized as governor by the federal government as part of the Compromise of 1877.

A conservative Democrat who looked at the antebellum period as a golden age in Louisiana, Francis R. T. Nicholls embodied the "Bourbon" or planter approach to less government-low taxes, few official services and little involvement by blacks in the political processes. Nicholls became Governor as part of the national compromise of 1877. In return for Louisiana's presidential electoral votes, Rutherford B. Hayes recognized Nicholls' victory over Stephen B. Packard.

Nicholls still had to determine which of the rival legislatures would act as the official institution. Nicholls convinced some Republicans to join his Democratic faction to give it the necessary quorum.

His first administration battled three corrupt men with great power: State Treasurer, Edward Burke; Samuel James, operator of the convict lease system, and Lieutenant Governor Louis Wiltz, a defender of the Louisiana Lottery. Wiltz presided over the Constitutional Convention of 1879 which reapportioned the legislature, moved the capital back to Baton Rouge, lowered taxes and cut a year from Nicholls' term. Nicholls fought the corrupt Louisiana Lottery throughout his second term. He lost the battle when the state Supreme Court revoked his dissolution of the lottery. Nicholls won the war, however, when the Federal government outlawed the use of mails to sell lottery tickets. Nicholls later became a Supreme Court Justice himself, serving until his retirement in 1911. He died in Thibodaux in 1912

(Source:; viewed 3/21/2014)


Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls was born on August 20, 1834, in Donaldsonville, Louisiana. He graduated from West Point in 1855, and served for one year. He resigned his commission and went to the University of Louisiana to study law. Nicholls practiced law in Napoleonville until the Civil War. After joining the Confederate forces in 1861, he took part in the First Battle of Bull Run, then in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign. In May of 1862, he was wounded at Winchester, and had to have his left arm amputated. On October 14, 1862, he was promoted to brigadier general. Commanding the District of Lynchburg until 1863, he later led a brigade in the Chancellorsville Campaign. During that campaign, his left foot was ripped off by a shell, and he was unable to return to combat service. Nicholls was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi Department to direct the Volunteer and Conscript Bureau until the end of the war. After the Civil War ended, he went back to practicing law. he ran for governor in 1876, and refused to accept a defeat by his republican opponent. The state had two administrations until the federal government recognized Nicholls' administration as the legitimate one. He was reelected in 1888, then appointed to the Louisiana Supreme Court in 1892. Nicholls died on his plantation near Thibodeaux, Louisiana, on January 4, 1912.

(Source:; viewed 8/16/05)


Louisiana Tourist and Development Commission


History of Nicholls State University

Nicholls State University, located in Thibodaux, Louisiana, is a comprehensive, regional University serving south central Louisiana. Tax supported and coeducational, it opened its doors September 23, 1948, as Francis T. Nicholls Junior College of Louisiana State University.

In 1956, the Louisiana Legislature separated Nicholls from Louisiana State University and authorized it to develop full four year curricula. Thus, in September 1956, the former junior college began operation as Francis T. Nicholls State College. It granted its first degrees in May 1958. Act 93 of the State Legislature in 1970 changed the name to Nicholls State University.

The 210 acre campus, once part of historic Acadia Plantation, fronts on Bayou Lafourche, about 50 miles southwest of New Orleans and 60 miles southeast of Baton Rouge.

Nicholls is located in the heart of Cajun country, an area rich in tradition and culture. It is also located in the heart of the Mississippi River delta, allowing easy access to the river, its distributaries, Louisiana's wetlands, and the Gulf of Mexico.

(Source:; viewed 8/16/05)


City of Thibodaux

Incorporated as a town on March 10, 1838. Early records show settlement existed in late 1790's as an important trading post for the Lafourche country. Named for Herni Schuyler Thibodaux (1769-1827), who have the first land for the early village.


St. John's Episcopal Church Cemetery, Thibodaux, Louisiana:

Francis Tillou Nicholls
and his wife
Caroline Guion Nicholls

We asked life of thee and thou gavest them
a long life even forever and ever.

Francis Tillou Nicholls
Brigadier General
Born August 20, 1834.
Died January 4, 1912.

"We would see Jesus for the shadows lengthen
across this little landscape of our life.
We would see Jesus this weak faith to strengthen
for the last weariness the final strife."

At no time and under no circumstances will I permit
one of my hands to aid in degrading what the other
was lost in seeking to uphold the honor of my native state.


George Seth Guion
Born December 9, 1806
Died October 30, 1861

Christ's faithful servant
and soldier until the very end.


George Seth Guion, founding
and father-in-law of Francis T. Nicholls.

G.S. Guion and wives

First wife

Caroline Lucretia Winder
Wife of George S. Guion

Second wife

To my gentle wife- the memory of whose many virtues, undoubting faith, never failing love, child-like purity and simple truth is treasured in the hearts of her friends on Earth and recorded on the pages of the Book of Life in Heaven, this monument is dedicate as a last token of affection.


Colonel Tillou as Nicholls State University mascot:

Colonel Tillou

The Little Colonel

The Little Colonel leading the Little Colonels marchers.



5/3/01- Mascot will probably get facelift

( 05/03

11/13/03- NAACP President proposes mascot image change

( 11/13/News/

2/10/04- Mean Mascot


2/8/04- "The Colonel" Faces a Major Reversal


2/16/04- A Brief History of the Nicholls Mascot


2/16/04 -Presidents Message Re: Colonel Mascot


2/19/04- Changes at Nicholls could spin out of control


4/1/04- Nichols State Pulls Mascot, Affirms Colonels Name


4/2/04- Nicholls State ditching mascot


4/3/04- La. University to Retire Its Rebel-Style Mascot


4/5/05- Students Had No Say On Mascot


4/7/05- New NSU pres forgets university's past


4/22/04- Houma Resident Uses History to Argue Mascot Decision


undated- Nicholls State University Mascot Under Siege


7/15/05- Mascots Not Only an Issue for Native Americans


8/11/05- Political Correctness Hits Home


8/25/05- SGA to sponsor contest to select new mascot



"The Southern scene, past and present, naturally affords examples of the clash between tradition and antitradition, but the conflict is all pervasive, though its manifestations are often disguised."

-Donald Davidson, STILL REBELS, STILL YANKEES, and Other Essays, 1957



"Modern rationalism rejected the mythopoeic vision that makes religion possible. Filtered through these distortions, God is merely and amiable expression. At the bottom of agrarianism is a commitment to what Richard Weaver called 'the older religiousness.' In essence, it is an ontology as well as a preference for the agricultural life and an attitude that rejects most versions of progressive, Faustian myth. Ignoring the Agrarians, many politicians and journalists predicted that the South would lose its character after the conclusion of the Second Reconstruction. They were guilty of wishful thinking. . . . Certainly, this conservatism is not going to hold that liberty or human rights can exist apart from the context in which they are created and readily subsist: it is not going to accept that such values can be posited as anterior to their historical development in particular circumstances."

-Mel Bradford, "Doctrine Rooted in Memory," Southern Partisan, Volume XXV, Number 1, May, 2006



Eliphalet Fraser Andrews,
painter of first "Sword Over the Gown"

Biography from; viewed 9/25/05:

After graduating in 1853 from Marietta College, where he received his initial art training, Eliphalet Andrews studied with Ludwig Knaus at Dusseldorf Academy in Germany and with Leon Bonnat at Ecole de Beaux-Arts in Paris.

Andrews returned to his hometown in Steubenville, Ohio, to open his first studio in 1860. Known for painstaking detail in his portraits, he specialized in large-scale paintings. He painted portraits of two Ohio governors, including his friend, Rutherford B. Hayes. Following Hayes' election to the U.S. Presidency, Andrews moved to Washington, D.C., in 1876. There he painted a full length portrait of President Hayes which found a home in the White House, as did renderings of President Thomas Jefferson and First Ladies Martha Washington and Dolley Madison. Several of Andrews' works were exhibited at the nation's 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia.

In 1877, at the behest of William Wilson Corcoran, banker and art patron, Andrews conducted a series of informal drawing classes at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. Ten years later, when the Corcoran School of Art was established, Andrews was named director, serving until 1902.

Many of his presidential portraits now hang in the collections of the National Museum of Art, the White House, the United States Capitol, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Ohio State House and in several Steubenville municipal buildings. Eliphalet F. Andrews died in Washington, D.C., in 1915 and was returned for burial to Union Cemetery in Steubenville, Ohio.


Eliphalet Fraser Andrews

Also Known as: Eliphalet F. Andrews

Born: Steubenville, Ohio 1835

Died: Washington, District of Columbia 1915


Born June 11, 1835, in Steubenville, Ohio. Graduated from Marietta College, Ohio. Married Emma Stewart, 1857. Studied with Lüdwig Knaus and Heinrich Mücke in Düsseldorf, 1859–63, and with Léon Bonnat in Paris, 1863. In Steubenville, 1863–76. Visited New York, 1863, and Düsseldorf and Paris, 1873. Lived in Washington, D.C., 1876–1915. Gave free instruction at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1877–87. Served as director and instructor of art at the Corcoran School of Art, 1887–1902. Visited Paris, 1888, 1891. Married Marietta Minnigerode, 1895. Had a studio-house on Scott Circle, and a country house, "Vaucluse," in Alexandria, Va. Died March 19, 1915, in Washington, D.C.

-C.Andrew J. Cosentino and Henry H. Glassie, The Capital Image: Painters in Washington, 1800–1915, 1983


Union Cemetery, Stubenville, Ohio


"General Underwood will bring his portrait gallery of famous Confederate Generals to
the Louisville Reunion May 30 - June 3."

-"The Lost Cause: A Confederate War Record," Vol. III, No 7., Louisville, KY., February, 1900


"The 'Lost Cause' is a Monthly Illustrated Journal of History, devoted to the collection and preservation of the Records of the Confederate States, Humorous Anecdotes, Reminiscences, Deeds of Heroism, also devoted to the works and interest of the 'DAUGHTERS OF THE CONFEDERACY.' "



"South Carolina Legislature passed a bill to erect a monument at Chickamauga Park."



"MACON, Ga., Jan 19- For the first time in its history, Macon has observed the birthday of "Robert E. Lee. The school children were given a half holiday, and all of the banks and other public buildings except the post-office were closed. During the afternoon there was a parade of the local militia organizations, and at night appropriate exercises were carried out under the auspices of the Daughters of the Confederacy."



"The March edition of the "Lost Cause" will be an official Confederate Reunion edition. It will be increased in size and full of interesting information of the Reunion."



"The souvenir badge of the Confederate Reunion at Louisville, May 30 - June 3, will be a celluloid canteen with the profile of Winnie Davis, daughter of the Confederacy, on one side and the Winnie Davis rose on the other."



The Alabama Historical Society has requested the family of Maj.-Gen. Wm. Allen, of Montgomery, to furnish his portrait for preservation among the valuable possessions of the society at Tuscaloosa. The order has been given to Miss Adelaide Everhardt, of Atlanta, a gifted young artist and personal friend. General Allen entered the Confederate Army as lieutenant of his company. Because of remarkable deeds of valor he arose step by step to the rank of Major-General C.S.A. He died a few years since at the home of his son at Florence, Ala."



"No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better."

-Luke 5:39, KJV


“But I trust,” said Bertram, “I am encouraged to hope, we shall all see better days. All our wrongs shall be redressed, since Heaven has sent me means and friends to assert my right.”

“Friends indeed!” echoed the Dominie, “and sent, as you truly say, by Him, to whom I early taught you to look up as the source of all that is good.”

-GUY MANNERING, by Sir Walter Scott, 1815


"Battle of Fontenoy," by Bartholomew Dowling (1823-1863):

May 11, 1745

By our camp-fires rose a murmur
At the dawning of the day,
And the tread of many footsteps
Spoke the advent of the fray;
And as we took our places,
Few and stern were our words,
While some were tightening horse-girths,
And some were girding swords.

The trumpet-blast has sounded
Our footmen to array-
The willing steed has bounded,
Impatient for the fray-
The green flag is unfolded,
While rose the cry of joy-
"Heaven speed dear Ireland's banner
To-day at Fontenoy!"

We looked upon that banner,
And the memory arose
Of our homes and perish'd kindred
Where the Lee or Shannon flows;
We look'd upon that banner,
And we swore to God on high,
To smite to-day the Saxon's might-
To conquer or to die.

Loud swells the charging trumpet-
'Tis a voice from our own land-
God of battles! God of vengeance!
Guide to-day the patriot's brand;
There are stains to wash away,
There are memories to destroy,
In the best blood of the Briton
To-day at Fontenoy.

Plunge deep the fiery rowels
In a thousand reeking flanks-
Down, chivalry of Ireland,
Down on the British ranks!
Now shall their serried columns
Beneath our sabres reel-
Through the ranks, then, with the war-horse-
Through their bosoms with the steel.

With one shout for good King Louis,
And the fair land of the vine,
Like the wrathful Alpine tempest,
We swept upon their line-
Then rang along the battle-field
Triumphant our hurrah,
And we smote them down, still cheering,
"Erin, shanthagal go bragh."

As prized as is the blessing
From an aged father's lip-
As welcome as the haven
To the tempest-driven ship-
As dear as to the lover
The smile of gentle maid-
Is this day of long-sought vengeance
To the swords of the Brigade.

See their shatter'd forces flying,
A broken, routed line-
See, England, what brave laurels
For your brow to-day we twine.
Oh, thrice bless'd the hour that witness'd
The Briton turn to flee
From the chivalry of Erin
And France's "fleur de lis."

As we lay beside our camp-fires,
When the sun had pass'd away,
And thought upon our brethren
Who had perished in the fray,
We prayed to God to grant us,
And then we'd die with joy,
One day upon our own dear land
Like this of Fontenoy.


"Weep not over me, my children,
for the death of a brave man gives new life to the young."

-"O Gero Demos," traditional Greek song


"Another achievement of Drayton's was the design of South Carolina's state seal. Drayton designed one side of the state seal, while Arthur Middleton designed the other. Drayton's side features two trees — an upright palmetto tree over a fallen English oak representing South Carolina's victory at Fort Sullivan under Colonel William Moultrie on June 24, 1776."

(Source:; viewed 8/22/2010)


"The revival of the southern tradition, Davidson quickly added, had to accompany the revival of southern society. No longer could southern writers feel ashamed of their heritage. No longer could they accept northern descriptions of the South as a disgraceful example of bigotry and fanaticism. No longer could they acquiesce in the progressive formula of industrialism, liberalism, and public education. They had to disavow the progressive ideal as the betrayal of everything they cherished. There was no reason to contort themselves into awkward conformity with a world view they found repugnant."

-Mark G. Malvasi, THE UNREGENERATE SOUTH: The Agrarian Thought of John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, and Donald Davidson, 1997


"The active functioning of the imagination is not the act of a child, a kind of make believe; nor is it fantasy; nor is it fancy. It is a mature and vigorous act of the mind and heart, oriented toward reality, expanding the cosmos within which the knowing mind dwells. . . . . Heroism is one of the fundamental patterns built into all of us, a universal potentiality that must, however, be ignited to be realized. America has been steeped in the classical heroic tradition. But it can easily remain merely latent if each generation simply starts over again without the guidance of the classics. Admiration of the heroic principle will surface from time to time in surprising ways; but without a tradition of reverence it is likely to be deformed and misplaced. A godlike aspiration, a selfless desire for a commitment to a calling, a sense that honor is far more valuable than life- these are aspects of the soul that must be awakened by a vision of the high and the noble."

-Dr. Louise Cowan, "The Necessity of the Classics," in ALL AMERICAN COLLEGES: Top Schools for Conservatives, Old-Fashioned Liberals, and People of Faith, 2006


From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript:

The trouble started when our professor began teaching about what was behind so-called 'education reforms.' He shared the reformers' statements and made the forbidden connections and conclusions about sinister intentions and the obviously horrid, though self-justifying and perpetuating outcomes.

Some aggressive students, trained to "take action," much to the credit of the eductional establishment, became angry that he was "only trying to foster division and undermining progress by focusing too much attention on his version of the past." They insisted that having and teaching "the right feelings about social problems and best practices of self expression" was more important than knowing "old facts that don't matter anymore." (These students were all receiving dubiously named scholarships and grants.)

"We must fight against historic injustices and commit more will too promoting social consciousness and awareness off the need for tolerance and inclusion" was their ready mantra.

Most of us just sat there quietly, especially those of us who had next semesters financial aid request still pending, seeing the obvious, but also fearing the too high costs of speaking up in support of inquiry. We, in our own acquiescent way, were also a credit to the establishment.

But as often happens when tacit permission is granted through exposure and inquiry, a very few special students, clearly gifted, and therefore oppressed, threw the yoke off their necks, and defied the new rules by pursuing the matter on their own.

And that is how Edmund Burke Huey's work received its new attention.

These ambitious students discovered how progressive educational reform was premised upon preventing "insidious" learning. That's when they pledged themselves to more intentional insidiousness, and upon encountering Dewey's agenda, soon elevated their dedication to the level of "invidious," having transitioned in steps from "unfortunate, wearisome, tensioned," and "egregious." (I'll admit it was quite exciting, as any controversy is at Sewanee. It gave us something new to talk about before we got too drunk to talk.)

That's how they started making a difference where change was most needed.

By the time they were lambasted and mocked as "extremist reactionaries who are too conservative for today's Sewanee" and openly attacked for "fearing change because it threatens your privilege," they knew that God was on their side.

In a rare show of support, one of Sewanee's oldest told them, "You are historic preservationists, which means you will be accused of being 'on the wrong side of history,' which really means, naturally, that you are on the better side with the angels."


"Both the inner utterance and reading aloud are natural in the early years and are to be encouraged, but only when left thus free, to be dominated only by the purpose of getting and expressing meanings; and until the insidious thought of reading as word-pronouncing is well worked out of our heads, it is well to place the emphasis strongly where it really belongs, on reading as thought-gettingy independently of expression." (Huey's PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY OF READING, 1908)


"It should constantly be remembered that there is no need of hurrying the young child into the ability to read every kind of printed matter at sight. The premature possession of this power is in itself a temptation to use it with matter that is wholly unnatural and unfitted for the child, and sprouts the insidious thought of reading as a formal end in itself. His reading vocabulary should grow mainly from his daily varying and developing needs of self-expression, in the social activities of the school. Whatever the children write for each other's use, either in pictures or words, will be quickly read; and new matter, whether a story of bear-hunting or directions about making the new kind of kite, will be pretty promptly made out if it appeals to an actual own interest, and the new written forms will be added to the child's vocabulary." (Ibid.)


From; viewed 3/24/2014:

[John] Dewey’s own philosophy was entirely humanistic, which became evident in his educational philosophy. In 1933, Dewey joined thirty-three prominent religious, educational, and philosophical leaders in signing the original Humanist Manifesto. In order to understand Dewey’s personal philosophy, a brief look at the Humanist Manifesto is in order.

The stated purpose of the Humanist Manifesto was to establish a new religion, the religion of Humanism.


From; viewed 3/24/2014:

American Humanist Association: Promoting Good Without a God

Advocating progressive values and equality for humanists, atheists, and freethinkers


Humanist Manifesto I

The Manifesto is a product of many minds. It was designed to represent a developing point of view, not a new creed. The individuals whose signatures appear would, had they been writing individual statements, have stated the propositions in differing terms. The importance of the document is that more than thirty men have come to general agreement on matters of final concern and that these men are undoubtedly representative of a large number who are forging a new philosophy out of the materials of the modern world.

-Raymond B. Bragg (1933)

The time has come for widespread recognition of the radical changes in religious beliefs throughout the modern world. The time is past for mere revision of traditional attitudes. Science and economic change have disrupted the old beliefs. Religions the world over are under the necessity of coming to terms with new conditions created by a vastly increased knowledge and experience. In every field of human activity, the vital movement is now in the direction of a candid and explicit humanism. In order that religious humanism may be better understood we, the undersigned, desire to make certain affirmations which we believe the facts of our contemporary life demonstrate.

There is great danger of a final, and we believe fatal, identification of the word religion with doctrines and methods which have lost their significance and which are powerless to solve the problem of human living in the Twentieth Century. Religions have always been means for realizing the highest values of life. Their end has been accomplished through the interpretation of the total environing situation (theology or world view), the sense of values resulting therefrom (goal or ideal), and the technique (cult), established for realizing the satisfactory life. A change in any of these factors results in alteration of the outward forms of religion. This fact explains the changefulness of religions through the centuries. But through all changes religion itself remains constant in its quest for abiding values, an inseparable feature of human life.

Today man's larger understanding of the universe, his scientific achievements, and deeper appreciation of brotherhood, have created a situation which requires a new statement of the means and purposes of religion. Such a vital, fearless, and frank religion capable of furnishing adequate social goals and personal satisfactions may appear to many people as a complete break with the past. While this age does owe a vast debt to the traditional religions, it is none the less obvious that any religion that can hope to be a synthesizing and dynamic force for today must be shaped for the needs of this age. To establish such a religion is a major necessity of the present. It is a responsibility which rests upon this generation. We therefore affirm the following:

FIRST: Religious humanists regard the universe as self-existing and not created.

SECOND: Humanism believes that man is a part of nature and that he has emerged as a result of a continuous process.

THIRD: Holding an organic view of life, humanists find that the traditional dualism of mind and body must be rejected.

FOURTH: Humanism recognizes that man's religious culture and civilization, as clearly depicted by anthropology and history, are the product of a gradual development due to his interaction with his natural environment and with his social heritage. The individual born into a particular culture is largely molded by that culture.

FIFTH: Humanism asserts that the nature of the universe depicted by modern science makes unacceptable any supernatural or cosmic guarantees of human values. Obviously humanism does not deny the possibility of realities as yet undiscovered, but it does insist that the way to determine the existence and value of any and all realities is by means of intelligent inquiry and by the assessment of their relations to human needs. Religion must formulate its hopes and plans in the light of the scientific spirit and method.

SIXTH: We are convinced that the time has passed for theism, deism, modernism, and the several varieties of "new thought".

SEVENTH: Religion consists of those actions, purposes, and experiences which are humanly significant. Nothing human is alien to the religious. It includes labor, art, science, philosophy, love, friendship, recreation--all that is in its degree expressive of intelligently satisfying human living. The distinction between the sacred and the secular can no longer be maintained.

EIGHTH: Religious Humanism considers the complete realization of human personality to be the end of man's life and seeks its development and fulfillment in the here and now. This is the explanation of the humanist's social passion.

NINTH: In the place of the old attitudes involved in worship and prayer the humanist finds his religious emotions expressed in a heightened sense of personal life and in a cooperative effort to promote social well-being.

TENTH: It follows that there will be no uniquely religious emotions and attitudes of the kind hitherto associated with belief in the supernatural.

ELEVENTH: Man will learn to face the crises of life in terms of his knowledge of their naturalness and probability. Reasonable and manly attitudes will be fostered by education and supported by custom. We assume that humanism will take the path of social and mental hygiene and discourage sentimental and unreal hopes and wishful thinking.

TWELFTH: Believing that religion must work increasingly for joy in living, religious humanists aim to foster the creative in man and to encourage achievements that add to the satisfactions of life.

THIRTEENTH: Religious humanism maintains that all associations and institutions exist for the fulfillment of human life. The intelligent evaluation, transformation, control, and direction of such associations and institutions with a view to the enhancement of human life is the purpose and program of humanism. Certainly religious institutions, their ritualistic forms, ecclesiastical methods, and communal activities must be reconstituted as rapidly as experience allows, in order to function effectively in the modern world.

FOURTEENTH: The humanists are firmly convinced that existing acquisitive and profit-motivated society has shown itself to be inadequate and that a radical change in methods, controls, and motives must be instituted. A socialized and cooperative economic order must be established to the end that the equitable distribution of the means of life be possible. The goal of humanism is a free and universal society in which people voluntarily and intelligently cooperate for the common good. Humanists demand a shared life in a shared world.

FIFTEENTH AND LAST: We assert that humanism will: (a) affirm life rather than deny it; (b) seek to elicit the possibilities of life, not flee from them; and (c) endeavor to establish the conditions of a satisfactory life for all, not merely for the few. By this positive morale and intention humanism will be guided, and from this perspective and
alignment the techniques and efforts of humanism will flow.

So stand the theses of religious humanism. Though we consider the religious forms and ideas of our fathers no longer adequate, the quest for the good life is still the central task for mankind. Man is at last becoming aware that he alone is responsible for the realization of the world of his dreams, that he has within himself the power for its achievement. He must set intelligence and will to the task.


J.A.C. Fagginger Auer— Parkman Professor of Church History and Theology, Harvard University; Professor of Church History, Tufts College.
E. Burdette Backus— Unitarian Minister.
Harry Elmer Barnes— General Editorial Department, ScrippsHoward Newspapers.
L.M. Birkhead— The Liberal Center, Kansas City, Missouri.
Raymond B. Bragg— Secretary, Western Unitarian Conference.
Edwin Arthur Burtt— Professor of Philosophy, Sage School of Philosophy, Cornell University.
Ernest Caldecott— Minister, First Unitarian Church, Los Angeles, California.
A.J. Carlson— Professor of Physiology, University of Chicago.
John Dewey— Columbia University.
Albert C. Dieffenbach— Formerly Editor of The Christian Register.
John H. Dietrich— Minister, First Unitarian Society, Minneapolis.
Bernard Fantus— Professor of Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Illinois.
William Floyd— Editor of The Arbitrator, New York City.
F.H. Hankins— Professor of Economics and Sociology, Smith College.
A. Eustace Haydon— Professor of History of Religions, University of Chicago.
Llewellyn Jones— Literary critic and author.
Robert Morss Lovett— Editor, The New Republic; Professor of English, University of Chicago.
Harold P Marley— Minister, The Fellowship of Liberal Religion, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
R. Lester Mondale— Minister, Unitarian Church, Evanston, Illinois.
Charles Francis Potter— Leader and Founder, the First Humanist Society of New York, Inc.
John Herman Randall, Jr.— Department of Philosophy, Columbia University.
Curtis W. Reese— Dean, Abraham Lincoln Center, Chicago.
Oliver L. Reiser— Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh.
Roy Wood Sellars— Professor of Philosophy, University of Michigan.
Clinton Lee Scott— Minister, Universalist Church, Peoria, Illinois.
Maynard Shipley— President, The Science League of America.
W. Frank Swift— Director, Boston Ethical Society.
V.T. Thayer— Educational Director, Ethical Culture Schools.
Eldred C. Vanderlaan— Leader of the Free Fellowship, Berkeley, California.
Joseph Walker— Attorney, Boston, Massachusetts.
Jacob J. Weinstein— Rabbi; Advisor to Jewish Students, Columbia University.
Frank S.C. Wicks— All Souls Unitarian Church, Indianapolis.
David Rhys Williams— Minister, Unitarian Church, Rochester, New York.
Edwin H. Wilson— Managing Editor, The New Humanist, Chicago, Illinois; Minister, Third Unitarian Church, Chicago, Illinois.


"There is no special connection between the unreal, the myth, the fairy tale, and the play of mental imagery. Imagination is not a matter of an impossible subject matter, but a constructive way of dealing with any subject-matter under the influence of a pervading idea. The point is not to dwell on the wearisome iteration upon the familiar and under the guise of the object-lessons to keep the senses directed at material which they have already made acquaintence with, but to enliven and illumine the ordinary, commonplace, and homely by using it to build up and appreciate situations previously unrealized and alien. And this also is culture of imagination. Some writers appear to have the impression that the child's imagination has outlet only in myth and fairy tale of ancient time and distant place, or in weaving egregious fabrications regarding sun, moon and stars; and have even pleaded for a mythical investiture of all 'science'- as a way of satisfying the dominating imagination of the child. But fortunately these things are exceptions, are intensifications, are relaxations of the average child, not his pursuits."

-John Dewey, 1899, in JOHN DEWEY: Middle Works, 1884-1924, Volume I, edited by Jo Ann Boydston, 1976, 2008


"When the social quality of individualized mental operations is denied, it becomes a problem to find connections which will unite an individual with his fellows. Moral individualism is set up by the conscious separation of different centers of life. It has its roots in the notion that the consciousness of each person is wholly private, a self-inclosed continent, intrinsically independent of the ideas, wishes, purposes of everybody else. But when men act, they act in a common and public world. This is the problem to which the theory of isolated and independent conscious minds gave rise: Given feelings, ideas, desires, which have nothing to do with one another, how can actions proceeding from them be controlled in a social or public interest? Given an egoistic consciousness, how can action which has regard for others take place?"

-John Dewey, DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, 1916


"Think of accreditation now as a lucrative means of enforcing John Dewey's social and political and economic transformation vision."

-Robin S. Eubanks, CREDENTIALED TO DESTROY: How and Why Education Became a Weapon, 2013


"Any community that allows outsiders the right of dictating how it should feel about its own fables, myths, and heroes, about its very identity, that allows 'the other' to decide what are acceptable and approved uses of imagination and genius, is a community preparing itself for abjection, servitude, and extinction. It will sit and do nothing while its own achievements are stolen or start rotting away. Its own children will worship foreign gods and sacrifice to idols of murder and self-hatred. It will choose self-restraint when self-assertion is the only answer. It is a community that has abandoned not just its own future, but yours as well. If you are part of and support such a community, you are sustaining your own failure and meaninglessness. Is that your purpose? If you aren't better than that, then you deserve what's coming."

-From THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


From; viewed 6/11/2014:

IV. A Transformation of Consciousness!

Historical experience demonstrates the following: Earth cannot be changed for the better unless we achieve a transformation in the consciousness of individuals and in public life. The possibilities for transformation have already been glimpsed in areas such as war and peace, economy, and ecology, where in recent decades fundamental changes have taken place. This transformation must also be achieved in the area of ethics and values! Every individual has intrinsic dignity and inalienable rights, and each also has an inescapable responsibility for what she or he does and does not do. All our decisions and deeds, even our omissions and failures, have consequences. Keeping this sense of responsibility alive, deepening it and passing it on to future generations, is the special task of religions.

We are realistic about what we have achieved in this consensus, and so we urge that the following be observed:

1. A universal consensus on many disputed ethical questions (from bio- and sexual ethics through mass media and scientific ethics to economic and political ethics) will be difficult to attain. Nevertheless, even for many controversial questions, suitable solutions should be attainable in the spirit of the fundamental principles we have jointly developed here.

2. In many areas of life a new consciousness of ethical responsibility has already arisen. Therefore we would be pleased if as many professions as possible, such as those of physicians, scientists, business people, journalists, and politicians, would develop up-to-date codes of ethics which would provide specific guidelines for the vexing questions of these particular professions.

3. Above all, we urge the various communities of faith to formulate their very specific ethics: What does each faith tradition have to say, for example, about the meaning of life and death, the enduring of suffering and the forgiveness of guilt, about selfless sacrifice and the necessity of renunciation, about compassion and joy. These will deepen, and make more specific, the already discernible global ethic.


In conclusion, we appeal to all the inhabitants of this planet. Earth cannot be changed for the better unless the consciousness of individuals is changed. We pledge to work for such transformation in individual and collective consciousness, for the awakening of our spiritual powers through reflection, meditation, prayer, or positive thinking, for a conversion of the heart. Together we can move mountains! Without a willingness to take risks and a readiness to sacrifice there can be no fundamental change in our
situation! Therefore we commit ourselves to a common global ethic, to better mutual understanding, as well as to socially beneficial, peace-fostering, and Earth-friendly ways of life.

We invite all men and women, whether religious or not, to do the same.


From; viewed 6/11/2014:

Kairos: the Center for Religion, Rights and Social Justice at Union Theological Seminary aims to strengthen a mutually reinforcing relationship between the world’s religions and the global struggle for human rights and to challenge efforts to create a conflict between them. Through rigorous scholarship, applied research, reciprocal education, and shared practice, it works to contribute to transformative movements for social change that can draw on the strengths of both religions and human rights.


We live in a time of both tremendous possibilities and severe challenges for the global struggle to advance dignity and rights. Waves of mass movements, including the Saffron revolution in Burma, the 2008 global food riots, the Arab Spring and the 2011 Occupy protests, have given strong voice to widespread popular demands for dramatically better lives for all people. They have also further exposed and mobilized powerful economic, political and social forces deeply opposed to change and prepared to do what is necessary to stop it. The possibilities demand action.

The challenges require action based on the most serious reflection and analysis. Religions play a critical role in these struggles. Believers in religions are activists and often leaders in these movements, finding in their different religious traditions an inspiration and deep legitimacy for their demands and a source of great and lasting strength for the hard fight to realize them. At the same time opponents also often use religious beliefs to oppose change, to create divisions, justify inequality and oppression, and to fuel an antagonism between religions and human rights.


"I have said that our great Southern writers are prophets and guides. Faulkner has called them the pillars and props to help man endure and prevail. Indeed, they are among our best allies. They grow from the central best of our culture; they articulate and dramatise it, and will help to preserve it, if not in a realized future, then most certainly for all time through the immortality of their art. If in centuries to come, those who want to know who we were and what we stood for, or to chart what has been lost in our passing perhaps in order to reclaim it, will only need read such works as Wendell Berry's novels The Memory of Old Jack, and Remembering. For to reclaim what has been lost, it is essential to know what has been lost."

-James Everett Kibler, "Knowing Who We Are: Southern Literary Tradition and the Voice in the Whirlwind," 1995,1998


In the second year prior to changing our historic name into
the new and scandalously offensive "Sewanee: The University of the South":

How Shall We then Live?" Series with Wendell Berry
at The University of the South, 2002

Summer Reading Focuses on Work of Wendell Berry
at The University of the South, 2002


"Likewise, we students cannot expect the character that we have formed in our years at Sewanee to remain intact without any further effort on our part. As Wendell Berry writes in one of his poems, 'Cleared, the field must be kept clear' and in another 'Such a mind is as much a predicament as such a place.' "

-Amy Metzger, Valedictory Address, The University of the South, May 14, 2006


Wendell Berry Honored at the Sesqui-Centennial Easter Semester Opening Convocation at The University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee

"Berry, a proponent of traditional agrarian values and environmental sustainability who operates a working farm in Henry County, Kentucky, will receive an honorary Doctor of Letters degree recognizing his contributions to literature. Called 'the prophet of rural America,' he has published 40 books of fiction and nonfiction, 15 volumes of poetry and numerous essays which have received wide critical acclaim; in 1994, he was the recipient of the Sewanee Review’s Aiken Taylor Award in Modern American Poetry."

(Source:; viewed January 22, 2007)


From, Spring 2012; viewed 3/25/2014:

SL: Andrew Nelson Lytle in I’ll Take My Stand writes something similar. I know you’ve written about the Twelve Southerners, too. I wonder if you ever think about region as useful to thinking about agriculture, whether it obscures the way people think about land and agriculture.

WB: I did talk about that in an essay on the Civil War. The South is a region, but mainly in the political sense. Geographically, ecologically, even historically, the South has many regions. Kentucky has many regions. But that won’t tell you how to farm. What we’re talking about is adapting the farming to the farm, and to the field. . . . John Todd wrote a sentence that has mattered immensely to Wes Jackson and me: “Elegant solutions will be predicated on the uniqueness of place.” One of the wonders of modern agriculture is that agricultural science— like all other science— is founded on evolutionary biology, which sees local adaptation as an absolute necessity for every species, but we have we managed to exempt the human species.

Is there anything else you’d like to add?

WB: Here’s the tragedy of agriculture in our time. In the middle of the last century, Aldo Leopold was writing and publishing on the “land community” and ecological land husbandry. Sir Albert Howard and J. Russell Smith had written of natural principles as the necessary basis of agriculture. This was work that was scientifically reputable. At the end of the Second World War, ignoring that work, the politicians, the agricultural bureaucracies, the colleges of agriculture, and the agri-business corporations went all-out to industrialize agriculture and to get first the people and then the animals off the land and into the factories. This was a mistake, involving colossal offenses against both land and people. The costs have not been fully reckoned, let alone fully paid.


"Whenever you make contact with the first episode of a consequential trend, with the primary inspiration as expressed in the first mention in the first reference, the first occurrence, the first of firsts, you are making contact with the original spark that rose up and became all the else. What you are witnessing in its simplicity contains all the complexity to come. That's the code you must seek. All subsequent imagination was fired from that one spark. It is as holy as the first time Gabriel told Mary of our Savior. When you seize it with your attention, when you pray for its effect, when you focus on its grace, when you embrace its courage, you are mystically uniting yourself with the conception in a way that is invisible to others and gives you the gifts that will be forever denied them. The spark runs along electric wire of revolutionary breakthrough in triune understanding, acceptance, and insight. That spark is a call to action and a corresponding response in one combined instantaneous force.”

-SIR ABDIEL attempts describing the annunciation effect, in THE LAST CHRISTIAN IN ALABAMA, draft manuscript


The Researched and Compiled Chronological Origins of Blessed Sword Over the Gown

Revolutionary Breakthrough in Understanding Whom We Are

Now Revealed to Sewanee for the Very First Time


New Orleans, 1890:

At Convention, June 10, 1890


Rev. Thomas R. Markham, of the Army of Tennessee, invoked the divine blessing upon the assemblage and the cause for which they gathered.


Biographical/Historical Note

Thomas Railey Markham was a Presbyterian minister in New Orleans who joined the Confederate Army and served as a chaplain in two regiments. Born in Fayette, Mississippi, in 1828 to William F. and Susan Railey Markham, he spent his childhood in Vicksburg. In 1850, Markham entered Princeton Theological Seminary, where he graduated as a Presbyterian minister. In 1856, Markham became the pastor of Lafayette Presbyterian Church in New Orleans and married Mary E. Searles in 1858. Between 1862 and 1864, he enlisted in the Confederate Army, serving as a chaplain until the end of the Civil War. After the war, Markham returned to Lafayette Presbyterian Church and continued his activities as minister until 1894. The Hodgson family were prominent and involved members of his congregation.

(Source:; viewed 4/9/2014)



Metaire Cemetery

In Memory Of
Thomas Railey Markham D.D.
Born December 2, 1828
Died March 12, 1894

37 Years Pastor Of
The La Fayette Presbyterian Church
New Orleans, La

A True Man And Earnest Patriot
A Sound Divine, A Faithful Pastor,
Eloquent, Persuasive, Wise
Generous, Truthful, Brave,
Courteous, Gentle, Loving,
His Life Was A Benediction
And His Death A Triumph

Chaplain 1st Mississippi, Artillery Light
And Later, Of Featherstone’s Brigade, C.S.A.
After The War,
Chaplain Benev. Ass’n. Army Of Tenn., La. Div.
And Also At The Time Of His Death
Chaplain General,
United Confederate Veterans.
In Every Position, He Shared The Dangers,
Trials And Sufferings Of His Comrades.

To His Virtues As Priest And Patriot,
He Added The Loftiest Qualities Of The Citizen.
No Class, No Creed,
Bounded The Wide Circle Of His Sympathies
No Cause Hostile To Public Virtue
Or Public Interest Escaped His Censure
No Movement To Advance The Welfare
And Elevation Of His People Failed Of His Support.


First Presbyterian Church, Lafayette Square, New Orleans


Chattanooga, 1890:

Proceedings, July 3, 1890


Gen. E. Kirby Smith was introduced, and after delivering a telling speech, requested his staff to meet at the Read House at 3 o'clock, p.m.


Col. J.F. Shipp announced an entertainment, to be given in the present tent, at 8 o'clock, p.m., for the benefit of the monument fund to the memory of the "Wizard of the Saddle" -N.B. Forrest- and invited all present to attend.


Surgeon General, Joseph Jones, requested the medical medical corps to meet at the Stanton House at 3 o'clock, p.m.


Election of officers for the ensuing year being in order, the following comrades were elected by acclamation amidst great enthusiasm, viz:

Jno B. Gordon, General commanding; W.L. Cabell, Lieutenant General Trans-Mississippi Department;E. Kirby Smith, Lieutenant General East of Mississippi Department.


The following resolution was offered by Col. D.A. Given, and passed unanimously, viz:

Resolved, That the badge of the United Confederate Veterans shall be the Confederate battle flag (square in shape), with the initials U.C.V., the size of which to be approved by the General commanding, and a record filed at General Headquarters.


From the handbook and program of the First Annual United Confederate Veterans Convention, July 3,4, 5, 1890; splendidly prepared by committees of the citizens of Chattanooga and of the N. B. Forrest Camp, United Confederate Veterans:


Polk's chest, killing him instantly. The event produced deep sorrow in the army, in every battle of which he had been distinguished."

There was no braver soldier, more loyal citizen, more earnest man than Leonidas Polk, Bishop and Lieutenant-General of the Confederate Army.


Lee at the Battle of the Wilderness


Jackson, 1891:


Proceedings, June 2, 1891


By Lieut. Gen'l E. Kirby Smith seconded by Lieut. Gen'l W.L. Cabell:
"Resolved, That a Committee be appointed by the Gen'l Commanding to confer with Mrs. Davis, in reference to the place to be selected for the erection of a monument to the Hon. Jefferson Davis, our late President and Commander-in-Chief."

The Gen'l Commanding to appoint said Committee whenever he thought best. Reported favorably by Committee on resolutions, and unanimously approved by the Committee.


Col. W.H. Rogers of the Army of Tennessee, nominated Gen'l E. Kirby Smith for Lieut. Gen'l of the Dept. East of the Mississippi, and he was unanimously re-elected.


New Orleans, 1892:



April 8, 1892


At 10:45, Gen. Gordon, accompanied by his staff, Lieut. Gen. W. L. Cabell, and other distinguished gentlemen, walked through the open ranks of the assembled veterans and took seats on the platform amidst deafening and prolonged applause. A few minutes later Lieut. Gen. E. Kirby Smith appeared and was received with hearty cheers.

Then the band played "Dixie," and the ''rebel yell" which greeted the first few strains shook the house until the rafters gave back answering echoes after the cheering had ceased.


Chaplain General Thos. R. Markham then offered the following prayer:

"Oh, Lord, our Lord, whose name is excellent in all the earth and who has set thy glory above the heavens. Thou doest thy will in the armies of heaven and among the inhabitants of earth, and none can stay thy hand or say unto thee what doest thou ? Thou stillest the noise of the seas, the noise of their waves and the tumults of the people. And while, as to man, one generation goeth and another cometh, and there is none abiding, thy dominion is an everlasting dominion, and thy kingdom from generation to generation. And while we do fade as a leaf and fall before the moth, thou art the same and thy years shall not fail.

"And as, to thee, we give adoration and homage, for to thee belongeth power. We rejoice and give thanks that to thee also belongeth mercy, for thou renderest to every man according to his work. For knowing our frame and remembering that we are dust, thou considerest the imperfections of our endeavors. Therefore, would we ever fall into the hand of thy forbearing judgment and not into the hands of man; for, like as a father pitieth his children, so thou pitiest them that fear thee, and judgest them by the Tightness of their aim and trueness of their purpose, whatever their errors in spirit or act or their sins of omission or commission.

"And looking back to that time, which, in our reunions, lives again, having in them its annual resurrections, its re-embodiment and renewal in our persons, we, thy servants, (and are not all thy servants the servants of thy will?) who were then constrained to say Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself, oh, God of Israel, the Saviour, can now say, It is the glory of God to conceal a thing. For now, though, here, 'we see through a glass darkly,' yet; as, of old, thou didst make known thy way to Moses and thine acts to the Children of Israel, so, to-day, through us, in thy dealings with us, in that past so dear and so sacred, in its records, its traditions and its memories, thy way is made known upon the earth and thy saving health among all nations.

"To day, recalling that hallowed past, we give thanks that thou gavest to this Southern land brave men and true women, whose devotion to duty, country and the right makes the memory of that country, our Confederacy, so ennobling a legacy. We thank thee for its principles, its precepts and its examples. We give thanks that its people came through the fire of trial, as fine gold purified by the flame.

"May our tongues cleave to the roofs of our months if we ever forget to make mention of their testimony to truth and righteousness. And may our children and our children's children, in all their generations, revere their names, their virtues and their valor, and keep green the memories of their high spirit, their brave words and heroic deeds.

"Make their lives our inspirations, and make us true scions of such a stock, so, that, if called upon, as they, to lay life, fortune and sacred honor on altars of consecration and sacrifice, we and those who come after us, in their successive generations, may show that the same fire kindles their souls, the same blood courses through their veins, the same pulse throbs in their hearts.

"And as recollections sweet, tender and sad mingle with memories inspiring and exalting, and as there come to us 'voices from the tomb sweeter than song, and a remembrance of the dead to which we turn even from the charms of the living,' may our love keep fresh and green, the recollections of comrades, whose forms, buried on their fields of honor, await the sounding of that trump, that shall waken them to life in the fields of glory.

''And grant, now, we beseech thee, thy blessing upon this assembly of United Confederate Veterans. As we have come together, as we trust, with one mind and one heart, to honor the past, to be true to the present to get wisdom for the future, we ask of thee to give us the spirit of counsel and of understanding. So endue us with wisdom from on high that, our deliberations and decisions, overruled by thy providence, may result in good, not only to our own part of this broad land, but be co-workers for good to our entire country. May our acts and those of like re-unions that shall follow, as we trust, to our remotest generations, prove fellow helpers, in enabling comrades of the North and comrades of the South and their posterity to dwell together, as citizens of the same country and descendants of a common ancestry, in a spirit of amity and unity.

"And to thy great, name, the God from whom cometh down every good and perfect gift, to whom we look for the forgiveness of our sins, the renewing of our hearts, and the implanting of the hope of eternal life, to the name of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost; be the praise, now and evermore, Amen."


From Senator John W. Daniel's Oration, excerpt:

These are its great possessions. We live in a generation that is so busy with to-day's pursuits that it thinks but little of yesterday and its lessons. But the greatest wealth of the South is not in its material resources, great as they are. It is in the virtue of its people.

I would not give the memory of Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Albert Sidney Johnston, Joseph E. Johnston, Bragg, Polk, Ewell. Hardee, Breckinridge, Pat Cleburne, Dick Taylor, Hood, Price, McCullough, Semmes, D. H. and A. P. Hill, Stuart, Forrest, Morgan, Ashby. I would not give the memories of these dead warriors and their compeers for all your mines and fields.

I would not give the character and fame of the Confederate private soldier for the wealth of Ormus and of Ind. I would not for my own part exchange the fact that I, too, was an humble soldier of my people for all the gold and silver piled up in the treasury vaults, for the proudest crest in the heraldry of knighthood, nor for the grandest crown that ever sparkled on a monarch's brow.


DANIEL, John Warwick, (1842 - 1910)
Senate Years of Service: 1887-1910
Party: Democrat

DANIEL, John Warwick, a Representative and a Senator from Virginia; born in Lynchburg, Va., September 5, 1842; attended private schools, Lynchburg College, and Dr. Gessner Harrison’s University School; during the Civil War served in the Confederate Army 1861-1864, attaining the rank of major; permanently disabled in the Battle of the Wilderness in May 1864; studied law at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville; admitted to the bar in 1866 and commenced practice at Lynchburg, Va.; member, State house of delegates 1869-1872; member, State senate 1875-1881; unsuccessful candidate for Governor in 1881; elected as a Democrat to the Forty-ninth Congress (March 4, 1885-March 3, 1887); did not seek renomination in 1886, having been elected Senator; elected in 1885 as a Democrat to the United States Senate; reelected in 1891, 1897, 1904, and 1910, and served from March 4, 1887, until his death on June 29, 1910; died before his credentials for the last election could be presented; chairman, Committee on Revision of the Laws of the United States (Fifty-third Congress), Committee on Corporations Organized in the District of Columbia (Fifty-fifth Congress), Committee on Public Health and National Quarantine (Sixtieth Congress), Committee on Private Land Claims (Sixty-first Congress); died in Lynchburg, Va.; interment in Spring Hill Cemetery.

(Source:; viewed 4/13/2014)


Spring Hill Cemetery, Lynchburg, Virginia


Morning Session, April 9, 1892


Reports to the convention were next in order, and Major-General John C. Underwood, commanding Division of the Northwest was called on to read his report.

Gen. Underwood on rising, said:

"Mr. President and gentlemen of the convention— I live in Kentucky and reside in Chicago. I am a member of two camps in Kentucky, and of one (No. 8) in Chicago. It is a much more difficult thing to belong to a camp in a city like Chicago, where we have to meet in individual offices and hold up the enthusiasm by Saturday night meetings on the enemy's ground.

"I received the appointment (which I did not expect) from the general commanding as major-general of the Northwest, including the division West of the Alleghenies, which is referred to in General Orders No. 22. Among other things the major-generals commanding were directed to proceed to gather the names, compile the names and commands of all the Confederate dead buried in the various prisons and cemeteries of the North, put their graves in order and see that that they are kept in proper condition and to monument their remains.

"I was never sufficiently high in the Confederacy to know how to make orders, but I had the privilege of obeying. I did the best I could, and I have this report to make to Gen. Moorman. I have the books with me, and have got the graves numbered, the number of their companies, and am happy to give them to those subscribing to the monumental fund as a bonus, as a gift. (Cheers.) I have never charged a Confederate soldier for anything that I could spare, and I know that you will be interested in the report which I shall read.

“This first part is only to show you how the officer obeyed the orders given. I will now read my report."

Headquarters Division of the Northwest, Chicago, Ills., April 7th, 1892.

Major General Geo. Moorman,

Adjutant General and Chief of Staff:

Sir: I have the honor to make the following report with regard to the discharge of certain duties, under orders from the Commanding General:

I. Pursuant to Paragraph 1 of General Orders No. 26 from general headquarters, and after receiving commission, I on February 2d, 1892, assumed command of the division of the Northwest and appointed a provisional staff (see copy of General Orders No. 1, Division Northwest, previously forwarded).

II. In obedience to Paragraph 2 of General Orders No. 26 from general headquarters, referring to Paragraph 11 of General Orders No. 22 of the same series, I began the compilation of data relating to the Confederate dead buried within the territory comprising my division district; and to date have been so fortunate as to be able to present herewith, as part and parcel of this report, two pamphlets containing rosters of deceased Confederate soldiers — one, embracing 4317 names, etc., of the dead originally interred at the prison Camp "Douglas," and afterward removed to and buried in the Confederate quarter of "Oakwoods" cemetery, Chicago, Ills ; and the other, embracing 2400 names, etc., of the dead buried in the Confederate cemetery on Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, and in the Camp Chase prison cemetery and City cemetery, Columbus, O.

III. I was unable to obtain sufficient data relating to the dead buried at other points to justify publication thereof in pamphlet form, but know that there are the remains of some 1700 Confederates who died in Camp Morton prison and lie buried in the old cemetery at Indianapolis, Ind., the graves and grounds there being in a dilapidated condition.

IV. The State of Ohio has taken better care of the Confederate graves within its boundary than the other States reported; and has, by gubernatorial authority, had compiled complete rosters of such dead, transcribed and presented herewith in classified pamphlet form; the dead at "Oakwoods" cemetery, Chicago, number over 6000, but owing to the loss of some of the registers the names of about two-thirds of the number, only, could be ascertained, and their graves are indifferently kept, though in better condition than those at Indianapolis. Altogether, the remains of the deceased Confederate heroes referred to, are neglected and need attention; and, with the view of instituting a systematic reform, I have undertaken the raising of $25,000, more or less, with which to place both graves and grounds in good condition and monument the dust of those who gave life to the "Lost Cause" and who now lie sleeping beneath sod foreign to that of their nativity.

V. Pursuant to the intent and purpose, expressed in the preceding paragraph, I have already secured a cash subscription of $900, a guarantee subscription of $1000, a conditional construction subscription of $2000 — all aggregating $3900, which added to the money in bank to the credit of the treasurer of the Ex-Confederate Association of Chicago (the net proceeds of lecture by General John B. Gordon with interest thereon, etc.), $1489.40, makes a total available asset for Confederate monumental purposes at Chicago of $5380.40; and, from promises made me and the natural expectation of pecuniary realization through personal work done, I feel assured of the ability to erect a monument over the Confederate dead in "Oakwoods" cemetery, Chicago, at a cost of from $5000 to $10,000; and at other points, with different valuations, as after considerations.

VI. On March 5th, 1$92, I was directed by the commanding general to "proceed at once to the State of Kentucky to organize camps in the United Confederate Veterans;" and pursuant to such instructions, I communicated with many local ex-Confederate associations within that State, made several visitations to its principal cities, and to date have merged into the United Confederate Veterans the "Confederate Veteran Association of Kentucky," comprising 281 members organized into seven camps located at Lexington, Paris, Cynthiana, Georgetown, Versailles, Harrodsburg and Lawrenceburg; have secured the organization of forty ex-Confederates at Bowling Green into a camp United Confederate Veterans and have many more promised and in process of organization, which I shall hereafter materialize unless the order of authority is revoked.

VII. Having, in compliance with your suggestion, recommended a most active, zealous and worthy ex-Confederate worker, it was my pleasure to receive from you and present to President John Boyd of the Confederate Veteran Association of Kentucky, a commission as Major General United Confederate Veterans; and to muster and install into office in the presence of over 125 members of his command, who received the information of the introduction of the "United" Federation in Kentucky and hailed the elevation of their comrade to the command of the division with unanimity and great enthusiasm.

VIII. As a "Southerner" by birth, education and past service I am a devotee to the Southern people, of their principles of virtue and honor, of their chivalrous deeds at arms; and, desiring to preserve and assist in securing a true history of the past, I herewith report the statistical data previously enumerated as the most complete I could obtain; and, the number of camps formed, as the greatest I could secure — within the month of operation.

IX. On the whole I have done the very best I could with the means and opportunities at hand, and fully appreciating the honor conferred on me, I remain

Your comrade and obedient servant,

Major General Division Northwest.

Gen. Underwood was frequently interrupted during the reading of his report with applause, and at its conclusion the delegates evidenced their approbation by the wildest cheers.


Delegate Chipley, of Florida, offered the following resolution:

Resolved, That this report be adopted without reference to the Committee on Resolutions, viz:

Resolved, That the thanks of this convention are due and are hereby given Major General Underwood for his faithful performance of the laborious duties assigned to him by the general commanding.

Resolved, That his report and the rosters of our dead, prepared by Gen. Underwood, be published as an appendix to the proceedings of this convention.

And he also suggested that all other commanders emulate his example.

Seconded and adopted by a rising vote.

Gen. Underwood then thanked the convention as follows:

"No officer deserves any thanks for doing his duty, but I thank you, nevertheless, most sincerely, that you have received my report with such evidences of appreciation. I would, however, ask you to strike out one part of the resolution — that which requires the publication of the rosters of the dead. It will cost you six hundred dollars to publish anything like the number I have (6000). They were published at my expense, and I will give away what I have here with me and gladly send copies to each individual who will write me at No. 64 Exchange Building, Chicago, or leave his name and address with Col. John P. Hickman, who is a member of the Tennessee delegation. I have some of the books with me. Of the dead buried in Oakwoods Cemetery, Chicago, Texas has six or seven hundred dead; Tennessee, seven hundred and forty-seven; Louisiana, I think, one hundred and thirty-seven, and so on. They are all classified here (touching the book in his hand) and according to State and regiments. North Carolina has one regiment that buried there two hundred and ten men. To think of a regiment being put in that prison by the Lake, and nearly all of them to die there, for two hundred and ten men was a large regiment at one period of the war. The number of books I have with me is between sixty and seventy, and may be yours for the asking."

An amendment was offered, as requested by Gen. Underwood, regarding the publication of the rosters of the dead, and carried.


Major Gen. John C. Underwood:

Mr. President: I rise for the purpose of painting a word picture by citing a passage of history, possibly known to others than myself who are present. During one of the memorable battles of the late civil war, enriched with charges, counter-charges and deeds of valor culminating in victory, there was a thin single line of the "grey" being pressed back by overpowering numbers of the enemy, yet the onslaught of the "blue" masses was for a time heroically withstood; and, not until it was absolutely necessary to retreat, because of the depleted battalions and no reinforcements, was the command formed in two lines for the purpose of withdrawing from the field. No sooner had the retrogade movement begun, than the enemy discovering the maneuvre pressed forward its columns, made ready for the charge, and hurled the masses with a forest of bayonets against the centre of the retreating division. The Confederate line wavered, but being rapidly supported in the centre from its flanks, closed gaps from gun shots, withstood and repulsed the charge. Rejoining the sub-divisions it again commenced the orderly retreat, first one sub-division and then the other passing through the intervals made for it and rejoining in the rear of the protecting sub-division presenting a battle front.

Such tactics prevailed until the two retreating lines neared the crest of a small hill, when the retreating sub-division could not be halted, but without restraint passed over the top of the hill and sought the protecting cover of mother earth. The sub-division formed in line of battle, discovering that it was no longer supported and plainly seeing the preparations for an overwhelmning charge by the enemy with almost certain capture, turned and in some disorder also sought cover beyond the crest of the eminence. The efforts of the officers to allay excitement and stop the too hasty and unguarded retreat were fruitless; and, disorder, broken lines and capture seemed inevitable.

When the commanding officer came to the front and through his personal presence and influence endeavored to stay the disorderly retreat and prevent a possible rout. The men looked at their General, and though no cowards, as many hard fought battles could attest, still through temporary panic hastened to the rear; when, losing patience, the commander ceased his futile attempt to re-establish the lines of battle and turning faced the advancing host, sword in hand, head erect and bare, with the eye of an eagle and an indescribable determination in his facial expression, seemed to be willing to meet and defy the enemy with his single arm rather than suffer the disgrace of ignominious defeat. A tall, thin color-sergeant, reaching the hill top, looked over his shoulder as he ran and saw the advancing lines of the enemy; and comprehending the predicament in which his General was placed, he gave the well known battle cry of the South, turned and running to the front placed the battle cross standard beside the commander; the movement and example was electrical and, before the enemy could take advantage of the temporary panic, the line was formed dressing to the centre upon a Major-General and a battle flag; and, with the aid of opportune reinforcements, the enemy was repulsed. When a few of the nearest veterans turned to give homage to such a commander, it was discovered that he had been wounded, and, the trickle of blood across his cheek, falling upon and staining the clothes, plainly marked its fountain source; and, the scar that remains to this day constitutes a decoration, gloriously won on the field of battle, which far surpasses the most ornate jewel that could possibly be bestowed upon the military hero graced by the bullet mark.

There sits the man, Jno. B. Gordon, the hero of this thrilling and historic scene, the "Marshal Ney of the war", a civil ruler in the Senate of the now united country, a combined soldier and statesman whom we in honoring, honor ourselves.

Therefore, I second the nomination of General John B. Gordon for re-election as Commander of the United Confederate Veterans and, trust that his election may be unanimous.

This speech was greeted with loud and prolonged applause, and the name of Gordon, Gordon, Gordon, shouted by every delegate.


Comrade W. L. Delaney, of Kentucky, seconded the motion that the election be made unanimous, and by a rising vote, and amidst the wildest cheers and with the greatest enthusiasm the motion was carried by acclamation.

General Gordon replied as follows: "My beloved comrades, I will not attempt to imitate the example of the great Marshal of France, who directed in his last will to his people, that his body should be buried in Paris, and his heart upon the battle field with his dead comrades; but I will say, that while I live my heart and my services are yours [cheers], and when I am dead I trust that beneath the sunny skies of our loved Southland, to be laid to rest by the hands of my loving and consecrated brethren." [Loud and prolonged cheering.]

Gen. J. A. Chalaron, of Louisiana — "I move that all the present officers of this association be re-elected unanimously, and by a rising vote." [Carried amidst cheers.]


Lieut. Gen. E. Kirby Smith — “I thank you, my comrades, with a heart swelling with pride, for the great honor you have conferred upon me. As one of the first to enter the war in Virginia, and the last to lay down my arms, I can say that none, be he private or officer, have been more faithfully devoted to the South than I, and I promise to be worthy of your regard by remaining as true in the future as I have been in the past.” [Cheers.]


Gen. Underwood — I was about to do the same, and now beg to offer this resolution:

"Whereas, the ladies of New Orleans, mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of Confederate soldiers and citizen sympathizers, have through their personal efforts entertained and dined daily the members of this convention and attendant associates; therefore, be it

"Resolved, That the thanks of this convention are hereby tendered to the ladies of the Crescent City for their hospitality, thorough home-like courtesies and open-hearted liberality in their daily administrations toward the inner man, as equaled only by their lovely characteristics, as beautiful and true women.

"Resolved, That the foregoing resolutions be adopted by a rising vote."


It was carried by a rising vote, the delegates waving their hats and shouting, "Hurrah for the ladies of New Orleans."




Birmingham, 1894:


First Day's Proceedings, Wednesday, April 25th, 1894


A few minutes after nine o'clock, just outside of the wig-wam, salutes were fired by cannon, and Gramb's Reunion Band played "Dixie." The moment the first chord of this soul-stirring air was touched hats went up, flags were waived, handkerchiefs shaken and yells of joy from enthusiastic Confederates and sympathizers in a common cause filled the air.


Assistant Chaplain-General J. Wm. Jones, D. D., in the absence of the Chaplain -General, in calling the blessings upon this meeting, said in a fervent manner :

"Heavenly Father! We ask that Thy blessings be upon us to-day as we are gathered together in this Reunion. We thank Thee that Thy blessings were over us in battle, and we thank Thee that Thy blessings are over us here to-day. We thank Thee that, while many have fallen out of our ranks, so many of us remain to bless Thy name to-day. We thank Thee that in the days that tried men's souls, we had men of courage to fight for our cause. We thank Thee that there still remain the principles of justice and truth that we fought for. We thank Thee that those principles have been preserved, and that the Sons of Veterans to-day maintain the principles of their fathers. Hear us and answer us, and be with us in our Reunion, and grant that The God of Abraham, and of Isaac and of Jacob, and the God of Jackson, and of Johnston, and of Lee be with us in the days that are to come. We ask this all in Jesus' name. Amen."


General Gordon said:

"My Confederate Brothers and Confederate Sisters : It is my pleasure to respond to the hearty welcome just given us by this grand old State. I wish to assure the Governor of Alabama that the followers of those immortal men to whom he has referred are ready to meet with him in his cordial memory of those immortal dead. Yes; here are the men who followed Lee and Jackson and Johnston, and all the leaders who have made the pages of American history what they are.

"In one sense, my brethren, I am not the man to respond to a welcome from Alabama, for in that sense I am an Alabamian myself, and feel that it would be more proper for me to stand with her Governor and extend to the brave men of other States her welcome rather than to receive it; and, on the other hand, I am perhaps of all living men the proper one to make this response, because no living man is more indebted to Alabama than I am. It was among the mountains of Alabama that I first heard the voices that called us to battle. It was an Alabama regiment which I led, or rather which led me, into that bloody fray, and made principles when it swept over the frowning breastworks and left death upon the fields. We all have a right to feel thankful and be proud of all Alabama to-day. We can lay our tributes at her feet for her welcome. Alabama's name is enough to endear her to our hearts. In the first place, she is composed of seven letters, which is a lucky number. Four of the letters are the first letter of the alphabet. You may look at her from the front or behind, and she still stands at the head of the list; and if Alabama should have any trouble in selecting a governor we will furnish her all the candidates she wants. [Laughter.]

"The iron of her mountains, the rich soil of her black belt, and the timber of her sunny coast, place her in the front ranks of our Southland.

"Since our last meeting many of our comrades have fallen from the ranks into that last sleep of rest. Kirby Smith has gone, and that sturdy Roman, Jubal Early, has followed him; Vance and Colquitt, soldiers and statesmen, have joined the Confederate ranks beyond the grave.

"In conclusion, I wish to return the thanks of all these brave men to this great State, whose hospitality is as limitless as the air around us."


General Gordon sat down amid loud cheers, and the band played the Bonnie Blue Flag. He then took the chair as Commander-in-Chief, and announced that the Fourth Annual Reunion was ready for business.


Gen. John C. Underwood, of Chicago, was recognized by the Chair. General Underwood called attention to the Confederate Monument erected in Chicago at a cost of $100,000.00, and concerning which the United States Senate has now under consideration the dedication of four cannon and balls captured during the late war.

[At the rear of the wigwam had been placed a cast of the bronze statue from the original in Chicago. At a signal, Miss A. P. Hill unveiled the statue, and the band played "Dixie." Everybody yelled, threw up their hats, rapped canes and waived handkerchiefs.]

He then explained the situation of this grand monument erected at a considerable cost to the memory of the Confederate dead in the cemetery at Chicago. Continuing, he paid General Cabell and daughter high tribute for the manner in which they had faithfully worked for this monument.

General Cabell arose, and said he hoped the Camps would contribute liberally to this monument. He alluded in passionate terms to a monument more lasting still. " I warrant the Trans-Mississippi Department will come up all right. I will start the ball rolling at $10.00 myself. Let the Sons and Daughters of the South help us in this work."

General Underwood stated that the pedestal of the Chicago statue was made of old Georgia granite.

Donations to the monument were subscribed at a rapid rate, and great confusion resulted. "We must have silence," said General Gordon; and, on motion, it was decided to discontinue taking subscriptions.


Wednesday Afternoon


General A. P. Stewart was introduced, and made an extended talk upon the proposed Chattanooga and Chickamauga Military Park. He spoke at length upon the manner in which Congress had dealt with the matter, and urged the appointment of commissioners from each State to visit these fields, and mark the places of battles and commands. He urged these Veterans to go to Chattanooga, and visit these fields during the present Reunion.




Houston, 1895:


Third Day's Proceedings, Friday, May 24, 1895


General Gordon said he had a letter from "a Confederate soldier, a private soldier, a blind private soldier, but one who saw with his heart, as no man ever saw better with his eyes, the glory of the past; and who intended to do what he could to see that memories of them should be preserved."

The letter was as follows:

"New York, May 14

"Gen. John B. Gordon, Commanding United Confederate Veterans, Houston, Texas.

"General — I have the honor to inform you, and through you the veterans assembled in Reunion at Houston, that Col. Robert C. Wood, of Louisiana, is fully empowered to act for me in all matters connected with the memorial plan which I have submitted to the veterans for their consideration.

"With great respect,

"Your obedient servant,

"Charles Broadway Rouss."

General Gordon called Colonel Wood to the stand, saying that he was no niggard when it came to dealing with the Confederate soldier; that he bore in his veins the blood of old Zack and Dick Taylor. Colonel Wood had the following communication read by the reading clerk:

"New York, May 11

"Col. Robert C. Wood, City :

"My Dear Friend and Comrade — As I have been in correspondence with many Confederate veterans in relation to the establishment of a National Memorial Association; and as the matter has been called officially to the attention of the United Confederate Veterans by the two Department Commanders, I assume that it will be the subject of discussion at the Houston Reunion. Should this be the case, I beg that you will furnish the veterans with fuller particulars than I have been able to convey to them by circular or letter. The following statement will explain the reasons that induced me to interest myself in this memorial movement, and why I feel warranted in calling upon my comrades for co-operation.

"Shortly after the termination of the war, I became thoroughly impressed with the importance of the South's taking up the work of vindication. I saw that Northern writers, imbued with partisan feelings, stimulated by sectional animosity and posing as historians, were falsifying history; that they were misrepresenting the causes that forced the South to take up arms, and the manner in which she had sustained the conflict ; that they were reviling our domestic institutions, impugning the courage and devotion of our soldiers, making our trusted leaders the objects of malignant abuse; and were utilizing the text-books of the schools to mislead and debauch the minds of the young. I saw that these misrepresentations and slanders, propagated over a wide field, and without correction, were being accepted as facts.

"In view of this, I saw with great satisfaction, and watched with eager interest, the growth of a movement in the South to insure the truth of history by means of a truthful record of the great conflict, and an explanation of the causes that led to it. I thought that all who wore the gray would work harmoniously to this end, and in addition, do all in their power to preserve the memory of their fallen comrades, and to leave to posterity enduring proofs of their loyalty, courage and devotion to duty.

"When the first Southern Historical Society was organized, having in view the objects above recited, I hoped and believed a step had been taken that would secure all the results desired; that from this nucleus would grow an institution embracing all the matter and material necessary to the future historian in making up a truthful record ; that would contain as valuable object lessons the relics and mementoes of the great struggle for our rights; that would preserve the features of our great leaders; that would be a sacred shrine for our veterans, and a Mecca for their descendants for long ages to come.

"When I saw that our noble women and good and true men were working zealously and untiringly to secure these results, and that memorial organizations had been established in Richmond, New Orleans and elsewhere, I was hopeful for success. It was only after the lapse of many years that I commenced to entertain doubts or the perpetuity of the work that had been accomplished. I saw with concern that a multiplicity of efforts to accomplish the objects of general desire was endangering success. That, notwithstanding the evident design to make these memorial institutions national in character, they were regarded by the veterans as limited and local, and that they were never so generally and liberally supported as to obviate the necessity of recurring appeals for assistance. I saw that the old soldiers were reluctant to have relics and records removed from their respective States without an assurance of being made part of a national collection, to which every Confederate State would contribute. I saw that a great amount of valuable memorial matter, scattered broadcast over the country, was in danger of being lost or destroyed; and that many relics that should form an important part of the illustrated history of the war were being disposed of to Northern purchasers for purposes of exhibition and profit.

"Although much valuable time had been wasted, and many of the veterans had 'crossed to the other shore,' I believed that it was not too late to rectify the mistakes caused by patriotic zeal, and that whatever had been lost by not having concentrated our efforts and means might be regained. I was satisfied that the desire to perpetuate the memories of our great struggle for constitutional rights was so strong and universal in the hearts of our veterans; that their united and harmonious action could be relied upon in any effort to that end. Though convinced of this, I did not feel warranted in appealing to any of our prominent Confederate leaders to inaugurate the work, inasmuch as it would involve labor and necessitate expense, I preferred to take the burden upon myself.

"In November of last year, I addressed the following circular to the Commanders of the veteran Camps, and to other Confederates whose addresses I was able to obtain." (Here followed several circulars, which are familiar to veterans.)

"The responses to this circular were more numerous than those to the first, and equally, if not more, satisfactory. From veteran, Camps, from commanding generals to privates, from those who have succeeded in life's struggles, and from those upon whom fortune has frowned, assurances of co-operation and substantial support have been received. It is for the veterans to mold this universal sentiment into substantial expression. It would be comparatively easy of accomplishment to secure the sum that has been estimated as necessary to found the proposed association. A few rich persons could furnish the amount without inconvenience, but in so doing they would deprive the Confederate veterans of the opportunity of furnishing the world and to posterity proof of their unanimous and loyal devotion to the memory of the Lost Cause. An institution built out of their poverty would be infinitely preferable, and would inculcate a loftier lesson than one created by industrial wealth.

"The question of location has impressed me as one of great delicacy and importance, and in formulating plans I have given it careful attention. It has been made more clear that there will be competition as to the site of the institution. For this reason I deem it wisest and best to leave the decision to the Board of Administrators. I can only hope, in view of the great purpose contemplated, that local preferences and prejudices may be subordinated to the common good. I think all will agree that our shrine should be erected in a place easily accessible; that our Mecca should be erected where it can be reached by the greatest numbers. In this, as in all other questions connected with the establishment of the Memorial Association, I shall acquiesce cheerfully in whatever decision the veterans may reach. In this connection, I wish you to assure our comrades that from the inception of this movement there has been no desire or purpose to interfere with or antagonize in any manner ¦whatever the memorial organizations that now exist.

"Although the plan submitted for the establishment of a memorial association has in view the crystallization of a sentiment dear to all Confederates, yet we should not lose sight of the fact that zealous activity, intelligent effort and business methods are essential to success. If it be determined to establish the association, of which there appears no doubt, the first and most important work will be a canvass of the veterans. I am convinced if the Commanders of veteran camps and others interested themselves it would largely exceed the amount estimated for, and that the effort would be to stimulate to increased liberality those who now intend to contribute bountifully. I take it for granted that the poorer veterans can pay their subscriptions by installment during the progress of the work.

"While I am confident of the establishment of the memorial association, and desirous of seeing its completion as soon as possible, I would advise against commencing work without sufficient funds in hand to insure its continual prosecution. The effect of interruption would be injurious, as it would evoke adverse criticism. It will be recalled, that insufficiency of funds to complete the Grant tomb so long after its commencement was made the theme of unpleasant comment throughout the world.

"Other matters relevant to the memorial association will likely be presented for discussion at the Houston Reunion. Our frequent conversations have placed you in possession of my views, to which you can give expression.

"I beg that you will commend me fraternally and kindly to the veterans assembled, and express my regrets that business burdens and failing sight will prevent me from being with them. Assure them that I shall enter heartily into their plans, and shall esteem it an honor, as it will be a positive pleasure, to be permitted to share in their good works.

"Very sincerely,

"Charles Broadway Rouss"

The communication was loudly cheered, and when Col. Wood supplemented it by saying that Comrade Rouss stood ready, if some such plan should be adopted to start the fund for it with $100,000, the cheering was redoubled. Gen. Lee paid a high tribute to Comrade Rouss, and commended his proposition. He thought the plan should be adopted, and the work begun. Gen. Gordon moved that the communication be referred to a committee of one from each State in the Association, who should consider the plan, and set the matter on foot. Col. Corey, of Virginia, didn't want to oppose the report, 'but called attention to the fact that the ladies of Richmond had been at work with the same general view for five years, and in their poverty, aided by the city of Richmond, had raised $60,000. He read a statement to show what had been done by them. A Louisiana member suggested that each camp should give a concert on the Fourth of July for the benefit of the fund. The motion was adopted.


Gen. Gordon read a telegram from Col. John C. Underwood, inviting the veterans to attend the dedication of the Confederate monument at Chicago.


Originating Spiritual Inception of Sword Over the Gown:

Charles Broadway Rouss's
First Circular Letter

New York City, Nov., 1894


More than a quarter of a century has passed away since the surrender of Appomattox. Of the many who bore arms in defense of the liberty of the South in the great civil war, but few remain. In a short time the last of those who wore the gray will have passed to the other shore. Upon the few that remain devolves the duty of perpetuating the memory of our gallant comrades who sleep beneath the sod.

"Nearly 500 veteran camps," "memorial associations," "historical societies" and "old soldiers homes" attest the loving and loyal remembrance of the Confederate soldier for the cause he served so well.

This question is forced upon us: What is to become of these institutions and our records and cherished relics when the last of our veterans who are their custodians shall have passed away?

The mementoes of the struggle of the South for civil liberty and the evidences of her glorious prowess in the field are scattered broadcast over the country. Should they not be collected and provision be made for their preservation as a rich inheritance to our children and a patriotic object lesson for generations to come?  Is it not feasible for the surviving Confederate veterans acting in brotherly concert to form an association having for its object the collection and preservation of these records and relics and also a gallery of portraits of the great leaders who added so much lustre to our cause?


Rouss's Circulars, Etc



Charles Broadway Rouss


Rouss Mausoleum, Mount Hebron Cemetery,
Winchester, Virginia

Charles B. Rouss
February 11, 1836 - March 3, 1902


Published 1921


George Llewellyn Christian


Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond

Son of Edmund T. and Tabitha Christian, his wife.
Born April 13, 1841 - Died July 26, 1924.
A Confederate soldier from 1861 until he was disabled by wounds at the "Bloody Angle," Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864; Member of the Richmond Howitzers, Second Corps, A. N. Va.; Judge of the Hustings Court of Richmond, President of the City Council, President Chamber of Commerce; Chairman of Board of Visitors of Medical College of Virginia; Vice-President Union Theological Seminary, Chairman History Grand Camp of Va.; President of the State and City Bar Associations; President of the National Bank of Virginia; President of the Virginia State Insurance Company. He did the best he could for his country, state and city, both in peace and war.


The Confederate Memorial Institute



The idea of a Confederate Memorial Association was raised at the Confederate Veterans Reunion in Houston, Texas, in 1895. Charles Broadway Rouss, a native Virginian and wealthy New York businessman, offered a large sum toward the erection of a memorial building to maintain records and relics of the Confederate cause, if matching funds could be raised across the South. In the fall of that year, the designated Board of Trustees first met and the movement to fund a "Battle Abbey of the South" began in earnest.

(Source,:; viewed 4/5/2014.)


History of Battle Abbey

The neoclassical structure that houses the library and headquarters of the Virginia Historical Society was built in six stages between 1912 and 2006.

Building Battle Abbey

The first part, completed in 1913, was built by the Confederate Memorial Association as a shrine to the Confederate dead and as a repository for the records of the Lost Cause. The association's driving force, Charles Broadway Rouss, was a Virginia veteran of the Confederate army who later made his fortune in New York. Rouss contributed $100,000, one half of the sum needed for the construction of the building: the remainder came in small contributions from veteran's camps, school children, and ladies' organizations throughout the South.

One fund raising effort in 1897, a piece of sheet music entitled The Broadway Rouss Two-Step, "sold for the benefit of the Battle Abbey of the South," so captured the public's imagination that the building became popularly known as "Battle Abbey" and has remained so ever since. Officially the building was designated the Confederate Memorial Institute, but the name was seldom used even by those closest to the association.



Facts about Battle Abbey

Battle Abbey has neoclassical architecture.

Battle Abbey was built in six stages between 1912 and 2006.

Battle Abbey is nearly 200,000 square feet.

Battle Abbey sits on land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Battle Abbey was designed by the Philadelphia firm of Bissell and Sinkler.

Inside Battle Abbey

The first portion of the building, including the marble entrance hall and two flanking monumental galleries, was designed by the Philadelphia firm of Bissell and Sinkler and was constructed on land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia. One of its most striking features is the series of heroic murals, "The Four Seasons of the Confederacy," by French artist Charles Hoffbauer. Also of interest are the seals of the eleven Confederate states, located beneath the cornice in the front entrance hall, done in bas-relief with gold-leaf accent.

In 1921 the first addition to Battle Abbey was completed, a nobly proportioned "Memorial Hall" built to house the archives and the extensive portrait collection donated to the Confederate Memorial Institute by its next-door neighbor, the R. E. Lee Camp, No. I, Confederate Veterans.

(Source:; viewed 4/14/2014)




The Sponsor Souvenir Album
and History of the United Confederate Veterans Reunion



General Jno. C. Underwood

Commander Division of the North, U.C.V.


Confederate Monument in Chicago, Decoration Day, 1895


General E. Kirby Smith


Richmond, 1896


First Day's Proceedings


Work of the Historical Committee



V. It is with particular pleasure that your committee call attention to a noble instance of co-operation with the plans and purposes of this Association. Simultaneously with the second report of your committee, made at Houston, Tex., Comrade Charles Broadway Rouss, a gallant Confederate soldier of the Army of Northern Virginia, and now a merchant prince of New York, tendered to the United Confederate Veterans a generous donation for the purpose of establishing the Confederate Memorial Association. The gratitude with which his noble act inspires every Confederate soldier is increased by the delicacy with which he avoided the ostentation of having the Memorial Association to bear the appearance of resting solely on his own munificence. He wished that it should be founded upon the joint efforts of all his comrades, and that all should feel in it the pride of ownership.

Comrade Rouss has looked wisely into the future, and has seen that our Association must end before many years by the successive passing away of its members. He has provided the means for establishing an organization to take our place; but he has left it to his comrades to give the movement, form and shape; so that the Confederate Memorial Association will come into perpetual life as the offspring of this Association.

Our children, and our children's children, trained by us to sentiments of patriotism, will grow up with love and admiration for the institutions of the United States— those munificent institutions to which their fathers have contributed so much. Partakers of the prosperity which the energy and wisdom of their ancestors is bringing to the South, they may come to ask, "Why did our fathers rebel against this glorious government?" And they may listen to the perversions of partisan historians. There should be, at least, one monument of the Confederacy left to bear witness. That monument should contain the testimony, and bear it down through all time . That monument should be guarded by a corporation which will never die, and be sustained by a perpetual fund.

To found this Confederate Memorial Association, to erect this Battle Abbey, and to provide it with an endowment fund, the annual interest of which will be sufficient to keep it in repair, and to sustain the expenses of a perpetual exhibit, Comrade Rouss offered his generous donation. For this purpose the committee appointed by this Association has canvassed the Southern States in order to offer to every Southern sympathizer the opportunity to contribute to this patriotic enterprise.

Your committee look forward with deep interest to its completion, and commend it to the Association as the most important subject which will claim their attention.


The results above enumerated, some of which were brought about by the recommendations of your committee, and all of which tend to co-operate with our efforts, encourage us to offer the following additional recommendations:

I. We recommend that this Association take steps to urge upon the several Legislatures, universities and colleges of the Southern States to adopt the policy suggested in the two previous reports of this committee relative to establishing a chair of American history in, at least, one university or college in each State.

To this end, we recommend that this Association make proper orders for appointing in each State or division, a suitable committee, to present the matter to their respective Legislatures, universities and colleges, and invite the co-operation of the respective historical, educational and literary societies, and to invoke the aid of the press, and of every Confederate camp or organization.


Second Day's Proceedings


General H. Kyd Douglas, of Maryland, then offered the following resolution:


The United Confederate Veterans assembled in annual reunion at Richmond, ever mindful of their dead comrades wherever they may lie, and holding in grateful memory all those who do them honor, desire to express to the city of Chicago their most grateful acknowledgments of the broad-minded liberality of its people in the erection and consecration of the lofty monument over the 6000 of our dead who rest within its protection, and the boundless hospitality with which it received all Confederate soldiers who attended that dedication. Our thanks are given without stint to every army veteran, soldier and citizen of that great city who participated in that memorable scene. May the monument there lifted up stand through the ages as a perpetual reminder that its dedication was the final triumphal scene of a great war, commemorative alike of the heroic dead it honors and of reunited peace and friendship between North and South."

In seconding the resolution offered by General H. Kyd Douglas, of Baltimore, General Stephen D. Lee said:


"I desire to second the motion. I was at Chicago at the unveiling of that monument and I never in my life saw a greater and more cheerful welcome than that accorded to the representatives of the Confederate army who were present. Three-fourths of the money necessary to erect that monument was subscribed by the citizens of Chicago, and when the Confederate delegation was in Chicago they passed two or three miles through 150,000 spectators, and every honor was given them. (Applause.) The was not one word, one look, one motion that did not carry with it love and friendship to your comrades who were there, and my comrades, I want to say that only until that visit I never believed that the war was entirely over, and its prejudices gone. (Applause) I felt then that every Confederate soldier could go in and make a display of his loyalty to the honor of our common country. ( Loud applause.)


General W. L. Cabell, of Texas, arose and said:

"Comrades, I have the honor of seconding that resolution. Although I was not present, I sent my representative — my daughter. (Loud applause.) She was there. (Continued applause.) From what she said, and from what my friend, General Lee, has said no people extended hospitality in a more lavish way than the city of Chicago did to the representatives of the Southern people (Renewed applause.) Representing 225 camps in the State of Texas, and 340 in the Trans-Mississippi Department, I have the honor to second the resolution in behalf of those noble men whom I had the honor to command. (Cheers.) Every man in the Trans- Mississippi Department, from Montana down to the Commonwealth of Mexico, bids me second that resolution. I do it in behalf of as brave a set of men as the sun ever shone upon. (Loud applause.) I second that resolution in behalf of the men of the Trans-Mississippi Department, who were brave in war,

and at the same time they have no apologies to make to anybody under any circumstances. (Renewed applause ) I second that resolution in behalf of the Sons and Daughters of the Confederacy. I do it in behalf of the men who were not afraid to acknowledge what they doing during the war. (Cheers.)

In conclusion he said: "I would not take a lump of gold as big as Texas, and a diamond in it as big as Arkansas, for the part I
took in this war." (Loud applause.)

General (Red) Jackson, of Tennessee, next arose and said:


Mr. Chairman and Comrades — It is with a very great pleasure I second that resolution, representing the grand old volunteer State of Tennessee. (Cheers). Let me tell you that was the first olive branch extended to the Southern people, when General Underwood applied to the colonel commanding the First Illinois regiment to fire a salute over the dead there, he said it would give him pleasure to furnish the whole battalion. Subsequently, when the Grand Army of the Republic commenced criticizing, General Underwood went to that colonel and said: ' Lest it embarrass you, you can recall that order.' He said: ' I was in the war from the start, and can stand such criticisms, and I will furnish my entire regiment to fire that salute.

"In recognition of that fact, I held a mass meeting in Nashville, and appointed a committee of ten on Invitation and three hundred on "Reception, and invited those people to Nashville. They came, and we gave them a grand old barbecue, and there were 1,500 of them present. Therefore, it is with great pleasure that I second that resolution." (Applause).

Kentucky also warmly seconded the resolution. Col. H. A. Newman, of Missouri, also spoke eloquently in support of the resolution.

General Douglas next arose and said: " I offered this resolution because I considered that the scene enacted at Chicago on the 30th of May, 1885, has fired the last shot of our civil war and inaugurated the greatest triumph of modern times. (Loud cheers). There was no other country on the face of this earth in which such a thing could have been done; there was no other city in this Union that would have done it as magnificently as Chicago did." (Applause).

The resolution was also seconded by several other speakers on the floor of the convention, and it was unanimously adopted by a rising vote amidst the wildest cheering.

After the vote on the adoption of the resolution was taken, General Gordon said:

"Now let the wires flash, that this part of the Union is ready to back the great powers necessary to carry us forward to our destiny." (Tremendous applause).

There was a simultaneous and united call for Underwood. "Underwood," "Underwood," which continued to grow and swell until the building fairly shook with the cry, but the distinguished comrade who had done more than all else together in rescuing from oblivion the names and caring for the graves and memory of the Southern dead upon Northern soil, was not present to receive the ovation which he so justly and richly merited.



Adjutant General Geo. Moorman here submitted his annual report, which was read and unanimously adopted. It is as follows: Headquarters United Confederate Veterans, Richmond, Va., June 30, 1896

General John B. Gordon, Commanding U. C. Vs.:

General —  I have the honor to make a report of the growth of the organization of the United Confederate Veterans, which cannot but be gratifying to you and to our comrades.



The great good accomplished by Major General John C. Underwood, in furnishing to these headquarters the names and location of the graves of our comrades buried at the places named above, and through his wonderful ability, high order of patriotism and great pecuniary loss to him, as well as an expenditure of time and labor of such magnitude that it can scarcely be arrived at, in building the beautiful monument at Oakwood Cemetery, at Chicago, to the " Confederate dead," is an eloquent reason why this department should be revived, and the philanthropic purpose of the United Confederate Veterans, so worthily and grandly carried out during General Underwood's administration be continued.


It is our sacred duty, and the dictates of honor require that we, the living, shall keep green the memory and the graves of those of our heroes whose arms are nerveless, and whose families many of them are helpless, who are sleeping so far away from homes and kindred, and I respectfully recommend that a Department of the North be created at once, a suitable commander be selected, and the grand work so ably and patriotically started by General Underwood be actively continued.

No formal report has been made to this body of the completion of that grand Confederate monument in Oakwood Cemetery, at Chicago, 111., which "sentinels the bivouac of the dead," — "Our Dead'' — who will sleep forever upon the shores of the great lake, within the hospitable gates of the peerless city of the Northwest. Nor has any greeting been sent by this body to that magnanimous city, which shelters "our dead" upon her bosom, and which, with so much grace and hospitality, welcomed the Confederate survivors to witness the consecration of this historical memorial; nor has any action been taken to express the appreciation of the Veterans for the great ability, unselfish labor and high order of patriotism, worthy of emulation, shown by Major General Underwood in his noble work.


Adjutant-General George Moorman


Metaire Cemetery, New Orleans, Louisiana

JULY 2ND 1891 TO DECEMBER 16TH 1902.




General Lee here also moved that the rules be suspended in order that the constitution be so amended as to re-establish the Department of the Northwest, heretofore so ably managed by General John C. Underwood, and which had been abolished by the new Constitution. The motion was seconded. The Chair said, is the convention ready for the question; when the motion was put and unanimously carried.

The Chair then said, there being no objection the ayes have it and the Department is restored .


The Chair. The Constitution provides that a notice be sent out three months in advance of a Reunion to every camp of the United Confederate Veterans. If the comrade wishes now to recognize the distinguished services of General Underwood, it is always in order to offer a resolution of thanks

. General Chalaron, Mr. President — The great value of the magnificent labors performed by General Underwood, is known to us all, and I move that he be invited to the stand.

The Chair: I hereby request Adjutant General Moorman and General Chaloron to escort General Underwood to the stand.

"While waiting for General Underwood to reach the platform, General Peyton Wise advanced to the front of the stage and said: Mr. President and my Comrades, I desire to move that the Chair, our beloved General Gordon, appoint a committee to wait upon Mrs. Jefferson Davis, the widow of our dead President, and her daughter, Mrs. Hayes, and invite them to a seat upon the stage, in order that this Convention might give them the honor due, which was carried by acclamation.

The Chair appointed General Peyton Wise and Comrade Taylor Ellyeon for this distinguished service.

By this time General Underwood had reached the stage, and the Chair in introducing him, said:

''I now introduce to you a man who has rescued from oblivion more graves of Confederate soldiers buried on Northern soil than any other Southern man."

General Underwood was greeted with loud applause as he advanced to the front of the platform. He began by saying:

"Mr. President and Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen — To say that I am not glad to be here would be the veriest falsehood that could be uttered from any breast. The first service I did, little or great, was in the city of Richmond. The first vote I ever cast was in the city of Richmond. I had to run away from home, so to speak, being the only man of my name from Kentucky who was in the Southern Army. (Cheers).

Continuing, he said: "It was my misfortune to have been captured about the middle of the war, and to have served in four Northern prisons over a year, and the rest of the time as prisoner on parole, as Mr. Stanton would not meet the overtures made by Mr. Ould, of Virginia, for my exchange."

General Underwood here explained the manner in which he had obtained government recognition to secure the four cannon captured from Confederates, also the cannon balls which were placed at the base of the grand Confederate monument, at Oakwoods, in Chicago, built mainly through his patriotic labors.

General Underwood then explained the work he had done in connection with the Confederate monument in Chicago, and the noble work he had performed in caring for the graves of our dead Comrades all over the North, and he was frequently interrupted by applause. He then unfurled a flag that had been handed to him by a young lady (Miss Grigsby) a short while before he came upon the platform. The flag was of historic interest, having figured in the war. General Underwood's allusion to the flag and his tribute to the valor of the Southern soldier elicited hearty applause.



United Confederate Veterans,
Division and Provisional Department Headquarters.

Chicago, January 20th, 1896.

General John B. Gordon,

Commanding United Confederate Veterans.
Sir and Comrade:

I have the honor to make final report of the condition of the Division and Department under my command, give a synopsis of the statistics of Confederate soldiers who died in military prisons and are buried in Northern soil, and especially herald the procedures incidental to the erection and dedication of the monument to 6000 Southern soldiers whose remains are trenched in Oakwoods Cemetery, Chicago.

Pursuant with powers originally granted by the ex-Confederate Association of Chicago, Camp No. 8, United Confederate Veterans, afterwards approved by yourself, as per orders and other official documents issued from the office of your Adjutant-General, and by authority delegated through subsequent election by the United Confederate Veteran federation itself, I recruited and organized into Camps a large number of Confederate Veterans living east of the Mississippi river within the limits of my Provisional Department, collected and reported rosters of the Confederate dead buried in various Northern cemeteries.

The general conditions of my Divisions, so widely separated, are good, and have been referred to in detail in my biennial report under date of April 20th, 1894, and the mortuary lists, cemetery charts and other data relating to deceased soldiers buried within the territorial bounds of my command, which were given in part in said biennial report and subsequently compiled more fully and published in supplement thereto, are now revised and presented in final tabulation, as follows:



(See original at:


Total number of interments deceased prisoners reported 23,552

(Official Note). Record and Pension Office, War Department,

Washington, January 17, 1896

General John C. Underwood, Chicago, Ill.

Many of the Confederate prisoners who died in confinement at Fort Delaware were buried at Finn's Point, N. J., but no roster of those buried there is known to be in existence. No record has been found of any prison at Finn's Point, N. J., nor has anything been found to show that any Confederate prisoners were ever confined at that place.

By authority of the Secretary of War: F. C. AINSWORTH, Colonel U. S. Army, Chief of Office.

There are possibly 100 Confederate soldiers buried in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery at Washington, D. C , and doubtless an aggregate of a few hundred more at other points, but the total of such interments throughout the Department, recorded and unknown, will not vary materially from the number reported above which will approximate 24,000 (unless there were many more deaths at Fort Delaware than reported.).

The mortuary rosters heretofore reported and filed with the Adjutant-General embrace the list of Confederate soldiers who died in military prisons, and, besides recording their names, give dates of deaths in all cases and, with few exceptions, the companies, regiments, and States from whence the deceased hailed, so that it will be an easy matter to ascertain desired information covered by such records.

The foregoing tabulated statements have been compiled from data mainly furnished by the U. S. War Department, and, in no instance, has the battlefield dead been considered.

Special reference is hereby made to the good condition of the Confederate Cemetery at the Government arsenal near Rock Island, and much praise and sincerest thanks are due to General D. W. Flagler, Chief of Ordnance, U. S. A., for accomplishing such work.


In this connection I make synoptical reference to the construction and dedication of the monument erected over the Southern dead buried in Oakwoods Cemetery, Chicago, and demonstrations incidental thereto, giving below a classified account of receipts and expenditures, balanced, aggregating on both credit and debit sheets nearly $25,000 (which would have amounted to a much larger sum, had my four years' services and the value of the floral contributions from the South been estimated), as follows:


(See original at:

By deducting the cash in the hands of the Secretary of the Citizens' Committee from the aggregate ($24,647.52 —  $75.92), the remainder of $24,571.60 will represent and cover the total outlay.

Note: A detailed statement of bills receivable and payable, under final audit, with copies of the certificates of their correctness and approval are to be found in the addendum of my book.

The descriptive references to the ceremonial of the dedication, reception of the Confederate Generals, and other Southern guests, their entertainment by the good citizens of Chicago, Cincinnati, U. S. Army officers at Fort Thomas, Ky., are made in the special work following, which is also replete with orations, poems, speeches and prayers and embellished with engravings and etchings of the prominent actors, other distinguished personages, the monument and its accessories.

The preface hereto constitutes a historic outline of my individual and public actions prior to and under commission from you and the Veteran Federation, relating to things pertinent to the United Confederate Veterans, the Confederate dead buried in the Northern States and the general Northern-Southern movement toward establishing harmonious social and business relations between the two great sections of the United States. This, together with the body of the book and addendum, containing various documents for reference, to prevent repetition, are referred to and hereby made part of this report as to matters applicable through the discharge of duties assigned, and otherwise considered admissible, because of conveying information given in channels interesting to the South and its people.

Thanking you both personally and officially for the numerous courtesies extended, valuable assistance frequently rendered and fully appreciating the confidence reposed in and favor shown me by yourself, the ex-Confederate Association of Chicago, and the United Confederate Veterans Association, generally, I remain,

Very truly and fraternally,

Your obedient servant,


Major-General Commanding.

The above report was received and adopted.



General Gordon announced that the next order of business was to hear from the committee in regard to the matter of the Battle Abbey and receive their report.

The following resolutions constitute the report of the committee to the United Confederate Veterans:

Resolved, That the general committee be authorized to report progress to the United Confederate Veterans and ask that this committee be discharged, and immediately succeeded by a trustee, to be selected by the representatives of each division of the United Confederate Veterans here assembled, who shall be authorized and directed to obtain a charter for the incorporation, which trustees so appointed shall be named as incorporators in said charter.

Resolved, That this committee recommend to the United Confederate Veterans the adoption of the form of the charter presented by the executive committee.

Further resolutions were passed suggesting that the general commanding should call a meeting of the trustees without delay, and also that the report of the committee be presented at 11 o'clock this morning and that Colonel Dickinson present his proposal from Mr. Rouss to the gathering.

The report of the Executive Committee, as presented by Colonel Mcintosh, recommended that the purposes of the memorial hall should be vigorously pushed, but that it was the belief of the committee that the cause could be greatly forwarded by the abandonment of the work by a committee, and the adoption of a charter by the United Confederate Veterans for this expressed purpose.

In connection with such representations the Executive Committee presented a proposed charter, which had been carefully drafted by Colonel Mcintosh, and especially designed to meet the requirements of the case.

The charter provides for the naming of a board of incorporators under the corporate name of Confederate Memorial Association, who shall be trustees, to be named by the commanders of each of the divisions of the veterans, and discards the name of "Battle Abbey," and adopts the building of the "Confederate Memorial Institute," as the object of its incorporation.


The charter offered by the committee, and which was adopted, and will be presented to the general body, is as follows:

Petition for charter.

To __________,

The petition of __________ shows:

First, that they desire for themselves and their associates and successors, to be incorporated under the name of "The Confederate Memorial Association" for the period of years, with the privilege of renewal, and with the right under that name to exercise all the rights incident to corporations under the law of the State of ___________, and such other powers as are herein asked.

Second. The purpose of this incorporation is to erect at some place to be hereafter selected, as herein provided for, a building to be known and designated as "The Confederate Memorial Institute" and to collect, arrange, and preserve therein, statues, portraits, photographs and other pictures of the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States Army and Navy, of every rank from that of private to that of general commanding, who served faithfully the Confederate cause, and also of the civilians, especially of our noble women who were devoted to the South; also, such archives, relics, mementoes, records, histories, papers, books, orations, poems, paintings, pictures, and literature of every kind, and everything else illustrative of the self-sacrifice and denial of Confederate soldiers and Sailors, and the Southern people, their courage and heroism during said war, and their constancy and devotion to the cause for which they fought, together with the official acts of each of the States of the Southern Confederacy by their legislatures and constitutional conventions, and all debates therein, and proclamations of their Governors just before, during, and after the war, and also other matters illustrative of the character, life, spirit and motives of the South and her people, including the period anterior, during, and subsequent to the war, calculated to enable future historians to obtain such reliable facts and data as will assist them in writing fair, accurate and impartial history of said war and of the South, the said association being educational, patriotic and historical for all time. And this corporation shall have the right to compile and publish and to have compiled and published, books, plans, charts; and other papers and documents relating to the purposes for which it is organized and to apply for and hold copyrights and patents necessary for its protection, and to sell and dispose of the same.

Third. The domicile and principal place of business of said association shall be where said Memorial Institute is erected.

Fourth. Said association is not to have any capital stock, and is not organized for pecuniary gain; "but shall have the right and power to accept, from time to time any and all donations, devises bequests and gifts of real estate necessary for the location and erection of its buildings and such other grounds as may be needful for its purposes and that of "the United Confederate Veterans;" and may also accept all donations, devises and bequests of real estate, money, or other property that may from time to time be made to it.

Said association may from time to time appoint such agents or agencies as it may deem proper to solicit subscriptions, donations, or gifts, and receive and receipt for all money or gifts of value whenever and wherever the same may have been made for the benefit of the association prior to its incorporation, or that may hereafter be made to it, and shall cause to be issued and delivered to each and every person who has contributed or may hereafter contribute to the association as much as one dollar — if such contributor so desire — a certificate with the impression of its seal thereon, certifying that the person named therein has given the sum named to "the Confederate Memorial Association," and said certificate shall be of such paper, with such devices or engravings thereon as will make it suitable and capable of being preserved and transmitted by the holder as an heirloom to his or her posterity.


Fifth. The management of the said association shall consist of one trustee for each division of "the United Confederate Veterans," to be selected; or who may have been selected, by each of such divisions and their successors, whose term of office shall be four years. That any person who was a Confederate soldier, or a descendant of one, who may contribute as much as $100,000 to the said association shall have the right to appoint one trustee for the same as his or her representative for each $100,000 or fraction thereof over $50,000 so contributed, which trustee or trustees shall hold said office during the pleasure of such donor, and after the death of such donor said trustee or trustees shall hold office for life, and their successor or successors shall be appointed by the surviving members of said board.

Immediately after the board of trustees herein provided for shall be first assembled, they shall be divided as equally as may be into two classes. The terms of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, and those of the second-class at the expiration of the fourth year; so that one-half of the board shall be chosen every second year, said terms to be determined by lot by said trustees, all of whom shall serve without salary or compensation save and except their expenses incurred in and about the business of said association. Said trustees shall elect a suitable and competent person superintendent of said institute, and a treasurer, and such other officers, agents and employees may be necessary, whose duties shall be defined and compensation fixed by said trustees. Said trustees may from time to time, as to them may seem proper, sell any or all real estate, the title to which may be acquired, except* so much as may be needed for said institute, and shall invest the proceeds thereof together with other money of said association, bearing interest, as an endowment fund, and with such interest payable at such time as may seem proper to said trustees, so as to provide a fund to defray all current expenses necessary for the perpetual preservation and maintenance of said Memorial Institute, its relics, archives, etc.

The treasurer of said association shall be required to enter into bond, payable to said association, in such sum as may be fixed by said trustees and approved by them, conditioned for the faithful accounting and keeping of all funds of said association that may go into his hands as such treasurer.

Sixth. That whenever as much as two hundred thousand dollars shall have been given in money or other valuable things and real estate, the cash market value of which, with the money so given, will make a sum equal to two hundred thousand dollars, independent of so much real estate as may be needed for a site for said institute, the said trustees shall proceed to select a place or location for said institute and acquire title thereto and erect thereon, under the supervision and according to the plans and specifications of a competent architect, a fire proof building of suitable and proper dimensions for the purposes for which it is designed as hereinbefore stated.

Seventh. Until said association shall come into possession of as much as $200,000 for its use and benefit, exclusive of the real estate necessary for the building and curtilege, the management of its affairs in soliciting subscriptions, gifts and donations, etc., shall be in the hands of a superintendent to be elected by said trustees, whose compensation and the expenses of whose office shall be fixed by them, to be paid monthly by the treasurer of said association, upon the warrant of said superintendent. And in order to raise a fund to defray the necessary expenses of the association, until the said sum of two hundred thousand dollars shall have been raised, the treasurer of the said association shall be and is hereto authorized to collect any and all moneys that have been deposited for the use of this association whenever the same may be, and that which may hereafter be deposited, and deposit the same in a bank to be designated by said trustees to the credit of the "Confederate Memorial Association," to be drawn out alone upon the check of the treasurer of said association, and said trustees shall invest said money by loaning it at interest for a time not more than twelve months, secured by a first mortgage upon unencumbered real estate at not exceeding seventy-five per cent, of its assessed valuation at the best rate of interest obtainable, payable monthly; said loans to be made at the expense of the borrowers.

Eighth. Whenever a vacancy occurs in the Board of Trustees by death, resignation, removal or otherwise, the division wherein the same has occurred shall, at its next reunion or convention, fill such vacancy by the selection of another trustee, within one year after such vacancy occurs, or, whenever, there ceases to be an organization of divisions of the United Confederate Veterans as vacancies occur in said Board of Trustees, the survivors thereof shall appoint such successors. Such appointments to be made of Confederate Veterans or the descendants of Confederate Veterans. It being the object and purpose that this association shall be forever under the management and control of Confederate Veterans and their descendants.

Ninth. That the Confederate Memorial Association shall be under the auspices of the United Confederate Veterans, so long as such organization shall exist, and once in each year, so long as reunions are held. At the general reunion of said United Confederate Veterans, said Memorial Association, through its Board of Trustees shall make detailed and full report of the condition and affairs of said association.

Tenth. The Board of Trustees herein provided for may adopt a common seal and alter the same at pleasure, and may adopt by-laws for their government, not inconsistent with the provisions of this charter, and may appoint an executive committee composed of three of their members with power to act for it in the management and details of its business.

General W. H. Jackson of Tennessee made a motion that the report be received, and that the States shall now proceed to name the Board of Trustees, with the accompanying recommendation in regard to the charter, and the charter itself to be also referred to the Board of Trustees now to be selected, one member from each of the States, and that the delegates will now select that member to represent their respective States upon that Board of Trustees.

On motion of General Jackson, of Tennessee, the report was received adopted and referred to the Board of Trustees.

Colonel Mcintosh, of Mississippi, offered an amendment to the proposed charter of the Battle Abbey, providing- that Mr. Charles Broadway Rouss on account of his well- known liberality ia donating $100,000.00 without condition, or reference to location, be permitted to name one representative for himself on the Board of Trustees, which was seconded and carried.

Upon inquiry by one of the delegates, the Chair stated that not only each State should have one representative on the Board of Trustees, but also each division outside of the States, thereby making provision for an equal representation on that Board of the Indian Territory, Oklahoma Territory and the District of Columbia.

Comrade F. A. Monroe, of Louisiana, said: It should be clearly understood in the interest of the movement what Mr. Rouss' proposition is. A great deal of confusion and doubt exists as to whether the original proposition holds good; whether in that Charter the original condition is observed, because if changes have been made, in any respect, it will alter the original proposition.

"Question, question, question," and great confusion.

General Gordon: As far as I understand the question, I will attempt to clear the apprehension of every member of this convention. Changes have been made in the conditions, but no change has been made in Mr. Rouss' proposition, except to increase, to enlarge, to magnify that great memorial until it shall be worthy of the grand cause which it is to commemorate. That great-hearted comrade not only multiplied his subscription by five, making his proposition for $500,000, but I will undertake to say here to-day that whenever the foundations are laid that if a million, or two million are needed his heart and purse will respond to the need.

I ask not only in my capacity as chairman, but as your brother, placing myself upon the same plane, and upon even a lower plane in order that I may make myself understood clearly in this matter, I suggest, I beg, in the name of that memorial which is to indicate to posterity a fact, that in all these ages has never before been commemorated in stone, or marble, or brass; that memorial which will carry down to the remotest generations the glory which you men won from '61 to '65; I would beg in the name of that cause that .you, My comrades, rise to the magnitude and glory of that proposition and let us meet our comrade, meet him with as much generosity as he has displayed to us, and let us adopt the motion offered by General Jackson, as amended already, and leave this entire question of locality and amounts to your Committee or Board of Trustees.

Why, my comrades, it is impossible that any man representing the body of delegates who would name him as a trustee, should be tray that trust. None of these men here at present could prove unworthy, they stood by you in the terrible time which tried your souls, these men are your comrades, and are true to your memories and to any act which they may do in the body of trustees. We can trust these men, and it is impossible to submit to a convention of this magnitude lengthy matters like these and to discuss all these details.

Mr. Rouss, our comrade, having originated the plan and being intimately acquainted with all these matters, and vitally interested, submitted his proposition and conditions to the committee appointed by the United Confederate Veterans, who have clearly, thoughtfully, impartially and bravely made the Constitution of the Confederate Memorial Association, to which cause we will lend our labors freely and cheerfully, and with your patriotic assistance I feel assured that those labors will culminate in a grand success at last.


After a good deal of further discussion by various comrades, and an explanation from Lieutenant-General Cabell, General Gordon said as follows :

The reading of Comrade Rouss’s proposition will possibly clear the atmosphere, and I shall therefore, ask Colonel Dickinson of New York to read the letter from Mr. Rouss.

Colonel A. G. Dickinson, Mr. Rouss’s representative here read the [two] letters giving his new proposition:

No. 549 Broadway, New York
June 11, 1896.

Colonel A G. Dickinson, 945 Broadway, City;

My Dear Colonel:   Your esteemed favor of June 1st, is before me. It is remarkable with what wonderful accuracy you have interpreted my dream of a great memorial hall and Battle-Abbey, dedicated to the great men and women of the South, and to the advancement of civilization and science.

I have never been more impressed than by the seeming inspiration of your brilliant conceptions, and I thank you from the bottom of my
heart for your kindly assistance in the development of my plans, you have not exceeded my wishes or my intentions, but you have divined my purpose, and you have laid out before me a great work, that has become in its purpose the realization of my desires. It is no longer a dream the reality is within our grasp, and the attainment of this object, with the co-operation of my countrymen, can be fulfilled.

Possessing, as you do, my entire confidence, and feeling the strength of your sustaining influence, I hope we shall be able to accomplish, with my means and your instrumentality on the one hand, and the combined liberality of our people upon the other, a work that will be a great pleasure to all who have taken or may take an interest in it. Your thoughts, feelings and tastes are in unison with my own, and it must be your province to represent me in doing my part in planning and arranging the memorial hall and Battle-Abbey, as a tribute of devotion of Southern men and women to a nation's pride and glory. Nothing narrow or contracted has intruded itself upon the plans which you have formulated and presented to me; they met with my entire approval and you have my entire approval, and you have my authority, accompanied by my best wishes, to carry them out.

A nation will endorse our plans, and visitors from foreign countries can be edified by the lights of knowledge of things past and present, which will be created as much for them as for ourselves. Although a large factor myself, I am but an humble instrument in the hands of my comrades and friends, to assist them in perpetuating the glorious deeds of our heroes, I am proud to feel that I am to be an assistant in developing the true history of our great country. The pages that will be written from the archives will be collected by the Battle-Abbey Association, and which has remained so long unwritten, will be sacred to truth and justice, and I hope that my countrymen, both North and South, will do my personal memory the justice to believe that in offering to devote a half million of dollars to the great objects that we wish to obtain, that I have done it with a singleness of purpose of devotion to my fellow-man, and an unselfish desire to honor the good and great of our country.

Your long continued and disinterested devotion to the same object has won for you my affection and esteem, and I trust you implicitly to stand with me, by me, and for me in carrying out with promptness and energy our part of the purpose of our mission. All money necessary to carry out these plans will be placed at your disposal, and a fund of money to the extent of $500,000 will be so arranged that you and the rest of our associates who will constitute the Board of Governors, can make proper disposition of it, as may be required. To this you can consider me pledged, as well as my heirs and assigns, and I have further the honor to state for your information that my great pleasure will be to see the work begun as soon as my partners, my beloved countrymen, of every State and Territory in the South, are ready, and pushed forward to completion with all the rapidity commensurate with prudence and good workmanship, for some of us are getting along in years, and we must hurry up a little if we are to be permitted to see the result of our patriotic enterprise.

"The Temple to the Lost Cause" must be founded upon the Rock of Ages, its importance will develop with time, and whatever exalted estimate may be placed upon it to-day I trust will be intensified by coming generations of men, so that it will always stand as a part of the history of our great Republican Government.

Your letter describes the situation exactly, the condensed history you have given of the proposed Memorial Hall, and all that led up to it, my plans and agreements, I find correctly stated, and without going into details I authorize you to fulfil my promises by meeting the views and decisions of the convention that will be appointed at Richmond, and who will represent the wishes of the United Confederate Veterans as to the location of the building, etc.

I sincerely trust the matter will meet with no delay, but be definitely settled at the Reunion. I am ready at any time to meet my engagements as to this work, and wherever it is decided to build the Battle Abbey I will be in accord with the United Confederate Veterans, and hereby authorize you to act about the money I have advanced as working capital as you think proper, as it is best I think that you should be governed by surrounding circumstances. In your letter to me you have seemingly "covered the whole ground" in your anticipations as to what may occur if the $100,000 has not been raised in the South. I must leave all that to you, I know that you join me in the hope that everything will be ready to proceed to definite and final arrangements provided "the Temple" is to be located in one of the Southern States or Territories. If, however, my idea is accepted, and Washington is selected as the location, which proposition I request my countrymen to consider dispassionately and seriously before making a final decision, then you will proceed to make such arrangements with the representatives of the United Confederate Veterans as you may think necessary, and the then existing circumstances may require, all of which actions upon your part I hereby confirm in advance.


Colonel A. G. Dickinson, No. 945 Broadway, City

My Dear Colonel:  You have again kindly consented to represent me in matters connected with the memorial hall and Battle-Abbey.

All your actions at Atlanta not only received my approval, but my sincere thanks, and it is a great pleasure for me to know that at the reunion of the U. C. V.'s at Richmond, you will again represent my interests. You have my full authority to act in the premises as you may deem expedient and right touching my promises and agreements to co-operate with the U. C. V.'s and the people of the South in the construction of a memorial hall, to be located as may be agreed upon by those who have had or may have this power and privilege conferred upon them. I request of the committee that the same courtesies and privileges may be extended to you at Richmond as you received at their hands at Atlanta, and I trust that the same harmony will prevail, and a result accomplished fully realizing our best expectations.

With many thanks for the services you have rendered me, I am, my dear Colonel, most sincerely and truly, your friend and comrade.


The Chair stated that the letters would be referred to the Trustees for their consideration:

Colonel Dickinson's Speech

The privilege of the floor was then extended to Colonel A. GL Dickinson of New York, as the representative of Mr. Charles Broadway Rouss, who was to explain the situation in regard to the Battle- Abbey to the convention. Colonel Dickinson spoke as follows:

Mr. Chairman, we all thoroughly understand that the question of the location of the memorial hall is not before this convention, and it is as well understood, I presume, that it is not the intention of Mr. Rouss, or of his representative, to interfere in any manner whatever with the location of that institution. It is thoroughly understood also that $100,000 was appropriated by Mr. Rouss to build this memorial hall, provided an equal amount was appropriated by the people of the South. I came here as Mr. Rouss' representative on this occasion to meet your views in regard to that matter and to abide by the decision that might be made, whatever that decision might be.

It was thought that in all probability the question of location would come up at this time, and probably be settled. It was Mr. Rouss' desire that it should be settled by this convention, now assembled in Richmond. I came, however, prepared for any emergency.

It was not an emergency that you might call upon Mr. Rouss for his $100,000, but I came prepared to give you a check for that if you should call for it, after stating that you had raised an equal amount. It was, however, a possibility that, in view of the cyclones that have passed over and devastated the country, and other causes affecting your prosperity, my comrades might have been unable to raise the required amount; so I came prepared also to state that Mr. Rouss is willing to delay this matter as long as you wish — one year, or two years, or as long as it took to raise the Washington monument, is at your disposal.

Feeling that some emergency of this kind might arise, I addressed a letter to Mr. Rouss upon the subject, and brought to his notice the fact that there might possibly be a failure on your part to raise the $100,000, and under those circumstances I desired to know if it was his intention to build the Battle-Abbey at any rate, whether the money was all raised or not. This generous man, this philanthropist, is not governed by any narrow rules in regard to his charities; they are widespread, and they are universal. This is but one item in the great amount of charity he is doing. I wrote him a letter, which I will read to you:

Continuing, Mr. Dickinson read his letter to Mr. Rouss, and the reply to same.

Continuing, he said:

I will state that I did not think a grand Battle- Abbey could be built for $200,000, and I stated to him what I thought, and had plans drawn by an architect and estimates made thereon, and I placed before him a design for a memorial abbey that would cost $750,000. I went further and stated that the city that got this sum, would add it to the property upon which it was built, and furthermore, that $250,000 additional should be furnished to endow this great institution. It is upon that basis that he writes me this letter.

Amidst much confusion cries of Question, Question, Question.

Chaplain J. William Jones: Mr. Chairman, I make point of order that the whole matter has been left to a Board of Trustees.

A delegate raised the point of order that the proposition was simply to let one man from each division, serve in the Board of Trustees, and not one man from each State, as stated by General Jackson in his resolution.

Amidst great confusion and cries of Question.

The Chair said the vote is now upon the amendment, by Colonel Mcintosh of Mississippi.

All in favor of the motion will say aye; contrary, no.

The ayes have it.

Is the convention ready to vote upon General Jackson's resolution as amended ?

All in favor will say aye; those opposed, no.

The ayes seem to have it.

The Chair: A division is asked for, and the Secretary will proceed to call the roll of Divisions, which resulted as follows:


The Chair announced the motion carried, and that the State should now proceed to name the members for the Board of Trustees.

On motion of General Jackson, the thanks of the convention were expressed to the executive committee and to the officers of the Rouss memorial for the work done by that body, for the great labor that they have bestowed upon this work, and the good judgment displayed, and the results achieved.

A delegate from Texas stated that Texas had five sub-divisions, and asked how many trustees they were entitled to.

The Chair: Only one member from each State.

General Jackson moved that the General Commanding be made ex-officio a member of the Board of Trustees of the Battle Abbey.

The Chair: It is moved and seconded, what forbids me to state, that the General Commanding whoever he may be at any time, shall be ex-officio member of the Board of Trustees.

The motion is practically unanimous, only one dissenting voice.

After much discussion, amidst the greatest confusion, regarding the members eligible as Trustees.

General Chalaron said, Mr. Chairman, it should be finally settled by this Convention that no member of this Board should be selected outside of the Confederate States.

The Chair: Is compelled to rule all of this matter and discussion out of order, and states that the resolution already adopted comprehends the entire question, and informs the comrades who have participated in this discussion that the only way of getting at the proposition is to reconsider the vote by which the original resolution was adopted.

A delegation from Alabama made the point of order that all this matter was irrelevant, and that the order of business, the selection of the names of the Trustees be proceeded with, which was sustained by the chair.


According to the resolution previously adopted the body went into the election of the members of the Board of Trustees of the Battle-Abbey. This procedure took up considerable time, but it finally resulted in the election of the following members:

Alabama — George D. Johnston of Tuscaloosa.

Arkansas — Major Wm. P. Campbell of Little Rock.

District of Columbia — Win. A. Gordon,

Florida— General W. D. Chipley.

Georgia — General Clement A. Evans.

Indian Territory — Brigadier-General D. M. Hailey.

Kentucky — General J. B. Briggs.

Louisiana — General J. A. Chalaron.

Maryland — General John Gill.

Mississippi — Colonel J. R. Mcintosh.

Missouri — A. E. Asbury.

North Carolina — Thomas S. Keenan of Raleigh.

Oklahoma — John O. Casler.

South Carolina — Dr. B. H. Teague.

Tennessee — General W. H. Jackson.

Texas — General L. S. Ross.

Virginia — Colonel John B. Cary.

West Virginia — Colonel Robert White of Wheeling.

Comrade Allen Barksdale moved that the Commander-in-Chief be made ex-officio President and member of that Board, which was seconded. Carried.


The Chair will embrace this opportunity of announcing that when this Board of Trustees has been appointed, its first meeting will be at the rooms of General W. H. Jackson, No. 212, at the Jefferson Hotel, to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock.

Colonel Jno. B. Cary was appointed on the Board of Trustees as Virginia's representative, Vice General Fitzhugh Lee, absent from the country.

Comrade S. A. Cunningham, editor of the Confederate Veteran was recognized and made a brief statement in reference to his paper.



General E. Kirby Smith Fund


Nashville 1897:


First Day's Proceedings



The first real outbreak was created when the First Regiment Band began playing "Dixie."

The dear old tune raised the people from their seats and their hats from their beads. Cheer after cheer shook the building. It lasted as long as the music did, rising and falling like the waves of a mighty ocean. Other tunes were played, but few elicited such enthusiasm

The second volcanic eruption, as it were, occurred when General Joe "Wheeler arrived and was escorted to the platform. With him were his four daughters, Misses Lucy, Annie, Julia and Carrie, accompanied by Mrs. Micajah Clark, of Clarksville. General Wheeler bowed his thanks as he took his seat, while the band played "The Bonnie Blue Flag."


Second Day's Proceedings



At the conclusion of the singing Rev. Dr. D. C. Kelley who had served throughout the entire war with Forrest as Major, Lieutenant, Colonel and Colonel of Forrest's old Regiment, led in a prayer the words of which went straight to the hearts of all present in burning and eloquent words he prayed that God's blessings might rest upon the convention, upon the old Confederates, upon their families and loved ones; he prayed for the President of the United States, for the glory of the nation, and thanked God that he had given to the nation such men as the Confederate soldiers. He prayed for Queen Victoria and thanked God for her wise and prosperous reign over the mother country. Dr. Kelley concluded by asking all present to join him in the Lord's prayer and the lips of thousands again moved in audible supplication to him who watches over all alike.



Rev. D.C. KELLEY, D.D., was born in Leesville, Wilson County, Tenn., in 1833; and died in Nashville in 1909. He was sent as a missionary to China by the M.E. Church, South and for years did very noble work. On his return to America he organized a company of cavalry which was called Kelley's Troop and which served under Gen. N.B. Forrest and was with that gallant commander during the war. D.C. Kelley so distinguished himself for coolness in action and bravery in face of danger that he was rapidly promoted, being made major of battalion. He was elected lieutenant colonel of Forrest's Regiment the day before the battle of Shiloh and took the duty in the battle of Murfreesboro. He was on Forrest's staff as chaplain and aid. Afterwards he commanded a regiment, then a brigade till the end of the war, winning a brilliant reputation as "Forrest's fighting preacher."

At the end of the war he was made pastor of several of the largest Methodist Churches in Tennessee. Here his influence for good was widely felt, as in his upright life and true Christianity, he was an example of what a noble man should be.

(Source: Confederate Veteran, August, 1909)


Mount Olivet Cemetery, Nashville


The Chair announced that the reading of the report of the President of the Confederate Memorial Association was next in order. Gen. W. D. Cbipley of
Florida, the President, was recognized and read as follows:

Nashville, Tenn., June 22, 1897

To the United Confederate Veterans, in Seventh Annual Reunion Assembled:

Comrades: It becomes my duty as President of the Board to submit the first annual report of the Board of Trustees of the Confederate Memorial Association. In pursuance of the authority delegated by your body at the Richmond Reunion, a charter was obtained and the Confederate Memorial Association was organized at Lookout Mountain, Tenn., September 2, of last year. At that meeting I was elected President and Gen. Clement A. Evans, Vice President, and the Fourth National Bank of Nashville, Treasurer. An Executive Committee was appointed, as provided by the charter, consisting of Gen. W. H. Jackson of Tennessee, Chairman; Gen. L. S. Ross of Texas, Gen. Robert White of West Virginia, Gen. Jos. B. Briggs of Kentucky; the President of the Board of Trustees being ex-officio a member of the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee met and organized at Nashville, Tenn., on October 10, 1896, and elected John C. Underwood, of Kentucky, Superintendent and Secretary of the Association. Superintendent Underwood entered upon his duties with enthusiasm and energy, but was confronted with many difficulties directly connected with the affairs of the Association and his new work was seriously handicapped by the all-absorbing political situation.

Superintendent Underwood has succeeded in placing in the hands of the Fourth National Bank as Treasurer of the Association from old subscriptions the sum of $9,410.57. He has secured new contributions of $10,500, and has organized plans approved by the Executive Committee from which success is confidently expected.

The former administration of the affairs of the Association variously estimated the subscriptions at from $15,000 to $16,000, but an effort to cash the subscriptions and place the money in bank developed several duplications of the reported contributions, amounting to about $1,000. Contributions amounting to about $4,000 are withheld, and I would recommend that your body adopt a resolution, requesting that all moneys held for the Confederate Memorial Association be paid on drafts of the Superintendent and Secretary, countersigned by the Chairman of the Executive Committee, the same being made payable to the Fourth National Bank of Nashville, Tenn., the bonded Treasurer of the Association.

The thanks of your body are due the Tennessee Centennial Association for the liberal and unconditional contribution of one-third of the net proceeds of revenue to be derived from admissions on June 22, 23, 24, and to Superintendent Underwood for having provided a display of fireworks on the nights of the same days for the benefit of the C. M. A. All of these several occasions, the Exposition in the day and the fireworks at night, should be generally and liberally patronized by the Veterans and their friends in the interest of the cause.

I desire to assure my comrades that much and very valuable preliminary work has been accomplished, and while it would not be beneficial to the work now in hand or interesting to your body to enter upon the details, I feel warranted in repeating the assurance that your next Reunion will witness the consummation of the work entrusted to the Board of Trustees of your Memorial Association; and I desire to say further that this assurance is made after a full and frank conference with other members of the Executive Committee and Superintendent Underwood who have had direct charge of the work and who endorse my assurance.

The expenses of the work conducted under the present organization, like that of our predecessors, have been borne by Comrade C. B. Rouss, whose liberality has rendered it, unnecessary for the Board to use any contributions, a policy that will continue to govern the Executive Committee.

It is the avowed purpose and agreement of Mr. Rouss not to take the amount advanced for expenses from the $100,000 which he has agreed to turn over to the Association, whenever the Association has raised a similar amount.

To set at rest many reports in relation to the location of the fire-proof Memorial Building which it is designed to erect, I will state that the Board of Trustees have this matter entirely in their charge, as provided in the charter, comrade Rouss assuring the Board that it will be left entirely to their judgment and decision. It is the understanding of the Board that until the full amount has been provided that no decision will be made, and up to this time no discussion relative to the location has been had by the Board. It is well known to every Veteran and to every sympathizer that valuable relics, literature and illustrations of the Southern Cause are scattered throughout the South. Many of these are in insecure buildings, and while it is true that many of them are under the charge of the women of the South, who by their devotion to their care, but continue to illustrate and emphasize their patriotism during the war, yet, when the generation now passing away shall have been removed by the inevitable operation of time, it is but a reasonable apprehension that many of these things which we should preserve in the interest of true history will be ultimately lost. The importance, therefore, of preserving in a fire proof building with proper endowment the things which will tend to perpetuate the history of the Southern Cause must necessarily impress every Veteran and every sympathizer.

I would respectfully suggest that the United Confederate Veterans in their Seventh Annual Reunion call upon every Camp of thirty members and less, to pledge not less than $5; all Camps of more than thirty and less than fifty members $10; all Camps with more than fifty and less than one hundred members $15; and all Camps of more than one hundred members $25. With this assistance from the Camps and the realization of the plans now in operation, your next Reunion will witness the consummation of the important work entrusted to your Board of Trustees, and we believe that at your next Reunion you will be called upon to fix a time for the laying of the corner stone of a Memorial Building, in which will be gathered and preserved the archives of our Southern Cause, an established center to which patriotic thought will turn long after our personal reunions have ceased.

The Board of Trustees under the present incorporation were:

*W. D. Chipley, President, Pensacola, Fla.

C. A. Evans, Vice President, Atlanta, Ga.

W. H. Jackson, Chairman Executive Committee, Nashville, Tenn.

J. B. Briggs, Russellville, Ky.

*J. A. Chalaron, New Orleans, La.

*Robt. White, Wheeling, W. Va.

*D. M. Hailey, Krebs, I. T.

John M. Hickey, Washington City, D. C.

*A. G. Dickinson, Hotel Marlbrough, New York City, N. Y.

Wm. P. Campbell, Little Rock, Ark.

*A. E. Asbury, Higginsville, Mo.

*L. S. Ross, Waco, Texas.

John B. Carey, Richmond, Va.

Geo. D. Johnston, Tuscaloosa, Ala.

*J. R. Mcintosh, Meridian, Miss.

J. A. Casler, Oklahoma, Okla.

*B. M. Teague, Aiken, S. C.

*Thos. S. Kenan, Raleigh, N. C.

John Gill, Baltimore, Md.

Terms of those whose names are marked with star expire in 1900, others expire in 1898.

The death of Col. Wm. P. Campbell, of Arkansas, is announced, and the resignations of Col. A. E. Asbury, of Missouri, Col. J. R. Mcintosh, of Mississippi, and Gen. John Gill, of Maryland, have been received. Under the charter the Divisions of the respective States are required to fill these vacancies within one year at their next Reunion or Convention.

Respectfully submitted by order of the Board,

W. D. CHIPLEY, President


From San Francisco Call, Volume 80, Number 97, 5 September 1896:


William Dudley Chipley

Buried in Linwood Cemetery, Columbus, Georgia


Chipley Monument, Plaza Ferdinand VII, Pensacola

Soldier - Statesman -
Public Benefactor

On the battle field he was without fear, and without reproach. In the councils of the state, he was wise and sagacious, and in his pubic public and private benefactions, he was ever alert and tireless. The history of his life is the history of the up-building of West Florida, and its every material advancement for two decades, bears the impression of his genius and his labor. 



Atlanta, 1898



Wednesday, July 20th, 1898

The Eighth Annual Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans assembled at the Auditorium in Piedmont Park, at Atlanta, Ga., on, Wednesday, the 20th day of July 1898, at 11 a.m. with one thousand one hundred and fifty-five Camps represented.


General Gordon took the gavel and said :

It is my pleasant duty to promise you now the treat of the occasion. I have the honor to present to you a one-armed Confederate Soldier, a silver-tongued orator, and a golden-hearted brother. We shall now hear from General Charles E. Hooker, of Mississippi, the orator of the day.

General Hooker was greeted with deafening applause, and received a splendid ovation, his fame as the Chrysostom of the South having preceded him, and the old Veterans were anxiously waiting to catch the golden words as they fell from his lips.

He spoke as follows :

"Comrades ! Soldiers of the Army and Navy of the Confederacy, Daughters of the Confederacy, Sons of Confederates, Ladies and Gentlemen:

"Standing on the soil of a State which gave to the Confederacy so many intrepid soldiers, from the gallant Colonel Bartow, who fell at the first battle of Manassas, shot through the heart, down to the last charge of Lee's army, led by another Georgian, your own illustrious commander, General John B. Gordon; standing here, in the gateway city to the gulf, in hearing of the guns of Peachtree battle ground, and almost in sight of the line of Kennesaw mountain, so gallantly defended by General Johnston, and which he regretted he had ever given up, close to the battlefields, dyed with the blood of your heroic comrades, — I greet you as the survivors of the greatest war waged in all the annals of time.

"It was a war, my comrades, waged not for conquest; not for pelf ; not for ambition, but in maintenance of the great cardinal principle of home rule and community independence, which lies at the foundation of the government which our fathers builded, after the trials and tribulations and bloodshed of the seven years' war of the Revolution.


"The| Confederate flag gathered around it a galaxy of great military leaders — Robert E. Lee, Albert Sydney Johnston, Joseph E. Johnston, Beauregard, Longstreet, Bragg, Polk, Ewell, Hardee, Breckenridge, Pat Cleburne, Dick Taylor, Hood, Price, McCullough, Semmes, D. H. and A. P. Hill, Pickett, Stuart, Bedford For rest, Morgan, Ashby, Edward C. Walthall, Benjamin Humphries, Wade Hampton, Mathew Butler, Stephen D. Lee and Joe Wheeler."


"General Bedford Forrest was a natural warrior, bred in no school that taught the art of war, he taught war to his followers by his sublime courage and utter disregard of danger. Seriously wounded in one of his numerous battles, he received an order to hold his command in readiness to meet an expected raid from Memphis. Though not able to sit his horse, his answer was, 'with one foot in the stirrup, I go to execute your order.' "



HOOKER, Charles Edward, a Representative from Mississippi; born in Union, Union County, S.C., in 1825; raised in Laurens District, S.C.; attended the common schools, and was graduated from the Harvard Law School in 1846; was admitted to the bar in 1848 and commenced practice in Jackson, Miss.; district attorney of the river district 1850-1854; member of the State house of representatives in 1859; resigned to enter the Confederate Army as a private during the Civil War; became lieutenant and later captain in the First Regiment of Mississippi Light Artillery; promoted to the rank of colonel of Cavalry; elected attorney general of Mississippi in 1865 and the same year was removed with the other officers of the State by the military authorities; again elected in 1868; resumed the practice of law in Jackson, Miss.; elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1875-March 3, 1883); delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1884; elected to the Fiftieth and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1887-March 3, 1895); again elected to the Fifty-seventh Congress (March 4, 1901-March 3, 1903); continued the practice of law in Jackson, Miss., where he died January 8, 1914; interment in Greenwood Cemetery.

(Source:; viewed 4/15/2014)


Greenwood Cemetery, Jackson, Mississippi


Second Day's Proceedings, Thursday, July 21, 1898



General Clement A. Evans, chairman of the Memorial Association, which has in charge the erection of the new Battle Abbey, rendered the following report of that organization, giving the Con federate Museum to Richmond:

"To the United Confederate Veterans in Convention Assembled:

The Board of Trustees of the Confederate Memorial Association respectfully report that at their meeting held in Atlanta on Wednesday, July 20, 1898. they adopted a resolution selecting the city of Richmond, in the State of Virginia, as the logical and appropriate place to locate the proposed Confederate Memorial building, and they have charged the Executive Committee of said Trustees with the duty of arranging the necessary details to carry the same into effect. And to that end the said committee has been authorized to open and conclude negotiations with the people of Richmond through appropriate Confederate organization, or in any other way they may deem best to accomplish the object desired.

" The Trustees take pleasure in conveying to the Convention the information that the management of the present Confederate Museum, in Richmond, have indicated their wish to actively co-operate with said committee in securing a site for the proposed building, and their willingness to convey, in fee simple, the title of its property to this Board of Trustees, to effectuate the general purposes of the Confederate Veterans in preserving their records, relics, etc.

" Offers of a substantial character were also made by other cities, whose claims were strongly presented by their representatives.

" We believe that the selection of the place for the building will stimulate and quicken the efforts of comrades everywhere to assist us, upon whom they have placed the responsibility in carrying out to a successful termination the noble work in hand. No one unacquainted with the business affairs of the Trustees knows how much anxiety exists nor how personal sacrifices in time and money, on the part of each of us, have been made during the period of our service as the representatives of the divisions of the different States. We earnestly solicit your hearty co-operation in our future efforts."

As soon as General Evans had finished reading the report of the Battle Abbey Committee, there was a great shout of applause from every part of the Auditorium.

General Gordon: "The Convention has heard the report of the Chairman stating that Virginia has been selected by unanimous vote for the location of our Southern Battle Abbey, and the Chair feels authorized in saying, whatever claims might be set up by other cities, or other States, he knows he reflects the sentiment of every noble heart in saying to Richmond and Virginia, 'Our hearts and hands are with you.'



Mrs. Johnson, nee Sanson [Sansom], who is known in history as a Confederate scout and who at the age of fourteen years rode behind General N. B. Forrest on one of his most noted raids, was then introduced to the Convention, and was greeted by the Veterans with cheers and applause. On motion of J. R. Crow, of Sheffield, Ala., she was made an honorary member of the Association.

When 3400 Federal troops had made their way to the rear of the Confederate army and were headed for a cannon manufactory with the intention of destroying it. General Forrest went against them with 1200 men.

General Forrest's strategic movements are well known and the capture of this superior force of Federal troops occupies a prominent place on the pages of history. Mrs. Johnson at that time rode behind General Forrest and guided him, and in this way materially aided him in the capture of the foe.


Third Day's Proceedings, Friday, July 22, 1898


Hon. Charles W. Bacot, who represented the interests of Charleston, spoke as follows:

"It is a high honor as well as a personal privilege, combined with profound pleasure, to be the spokesman of the 'Old City by the Sea' to you. Confederate comrades, in this the 'Gate City of the South,' for the purpose of inviting you to hold your next annual convention at Charleston.

"The City Council of the municipality of Charleston and the greater municipality of the whole people of Charleston, have commissioned me and my committee to bid you come to Charleston in 1899, and in so doing the freedom of the city is granted to you and the hospitality of all her citizens is extended. Let me tell you why you should come to Charleston. In the first place, your conventions have heretofore been held in the Northeast, the Northwest, the Southwest and the central sections of the Confederate territory, but never before in the Southeast section and on the sea coast.

"In the second place you will have an auditorium capable of accommodating comfortably and easily 10,000 guests, if need be, facing broadside to the broad Atlantic, with splendid beaches in front miles in length, and standing against a background of South Carolina's armorial trees and other foliage, the blue billows and the buoyant breezes of the sea to bathe the aching feet and to fan the sun-bronzed brows of Veterans, and to rejoice the hearts of their daughters and sons.

"Forts Sumter and Moultrie, the sites of the Stevens Battery and Battery Wagner, on Morris' Island, and other sacred memorials of the dead past, all in your view to inspire you and awaken glorious memories, and perhaps the mighty American navy, recently immortalized by Dewey, Schley, Ilobson and Bagley, dancing on the surface of the waters as living witnesses to a reunited country on which territory it may be said, the sun now never sets.

"But the most especial reason is that it is fitting that your convention should give expression of farewell in this closing century, of our once high hopes in that spot which first gave them birth. Your refusal of our invitation to the birth place of the Confederacy, remember, may be construed by some into a condemnation of, or at least an apology, or a regret, for the 'lost cause.' Were our renowned chieftain and hero here, General Wade Hampton, as we all hoped he might be, he would join with me in urging upon you the higher claims of Charleston.

"By the shades of Lee and Jackson, Albert Sidney and Joseph E. Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg, and those other immortals whose names with theirs were not born to die, we invoke your coming to Charleston and receiving our royal welcome.

"Confidently waving the banner of welcome, we make a Confederate assault upon the citadel of your votes, and carrying them with the irresistible Confederate 'yell,' we lead you all captive at our will.

"Dearly beloved brethren, sisters and daughters, as well as brothers and sons of the Confederacy, can you say us nay?"

General George W. Gordon, of Memphis, representing the Tennessee delegation, seconded the nomination of Charleston.


Mr. George S. Legare, of Charleston, was the last speaker. He made a telling speech, impressing it upon the delegates that Charleston was the proper place for the next reunion.


The Chairman announced the result of the vote and the Charleston supporters greeted their victory with prolonged cheers.


Charleston, 1899:


When the Convention was formally called to order by Gen. C. I. Walker, on behalf of South Carolina, at.haif past 10 o'clock, the orchestra played "Dixie," and the business was start ed with such a throb of feeling as goes through every Southern audience at the playing of this air.


When Gen. Walker, with the historic Secession gavel, called the Convention to order, the Auditorium was well filled and an immense crowd outside the Auditorium trying to get in, the crowd inside and out numbering from twelve to fifteen thousand. Gen. Walker was received with applause, and spoke as follows:

"As the commander of the home division it is my duty to call to order this distinguished gathering. Charleston asked you at your last Convention to meet here, at the birthplace of secession. She welcomes you with some of the most sacred emblems of that historic past. To the St. Andrews's Society, in whose hall the Secession Convention of South Carolina held its sessions, we are indebted for the use of the valued historic relics to which I now refer.

“The gavel which I hold in my hand and with which I have called you to order, was that which called to order that grand body of patriots which, on December 20, 1860, passed the Secession Ordinance.

“Your commander and the department commanders are now sitting in the very chairs used by the officers of the Secession Convention.

“I rap on the table on which lay the Ordinance of Secession, which was fraught with such terrible consequences to South Carolina and the South.

“Will our chaplain general, the Rev. Dr. J. William Jones, now invoke the divine blessing on you, the men who so nobly vindicated the principles which were born in the shadow of these precious relics."

When Gen. Walker presented the historic gavel and rapped on the table on which the Ordinance was signed there was an outburst of applause.

An Earnest Prayer

The U. C. V. Chaplain General, Rev. Dr. J. Wm. Jones, a soldier of the Army of Va., an eminent divine, delivered an earnest prayer, in which he said :

''Oh, God ! our help in ages past. Our hope for years to come. God of Israel. God of the Centuries. Lord of Hosts and God of Battles. God of our Southland, and God of our common country; we bring Thee the adoration and praise of grateful hearts as we gather in our Reunion to-day.

"We humbly thank Thee for all of the circumstances of mercy and of grace which surround us. We thank Thee that while during the past year the grim reaper has been busy, and so many of our comrades have stepped out of ranks and crossed over the river, yet so many of us have been spared, and are here to-day to meet and greet each other once more, to breathe this balmy air, and to receive the hearty welcome of this battle-scarred, historic, patriotic city.

"And now. Oh, Lord! we ask that Heaven's richest blessing may come down upon and abide with this meeting.

"Bless, we beseech Thee, our commander, that his life and his health may be precious in Thy sight, and that he may be long spared to lead his people; and bless all of our officers, and all of our delegates. We ask that Thou wilt graciously preside over this great assembly, and that nothing may be done or said which Thou wilt not approve. And we beseech Thee, Oh Lord! that Thou wilt bless all of our Confederate Veterans wherever they may be to-day; that Thou wilt make them true to the duty of the hour, and the interests of our common country, but that Thou wilt forbid that they should ever forget, or fail to teach their children the great principles of constitutional freedom, which our fathers established, and for which we fought in the brave old days of 1861-65.

''May our Loving Father provide for our needy comrades, their widows and orphans, and so smile upon and prosper our Southland that we may have the sweet privilege of taking care of them.

"And now, Oh ! Lord, we beseech Thee, to bless thy servant, the President of the United States, and all in authority under him, that we may have wise laws and good government. Bless every section of our common country, that we may have fruitful seasons, plenteous harvests and returning business prosperity, but, above all, grant that ours may be in reality, and not merely in name, a Christian land, and that great problems that are before us may be properly solved by the great solvent of the ages — the Gospel of our Lord, Jesus Christ.

"Hear, O ! God, we beseech Thee, this, our opening prayer, and grant these, our humble petitions; pardon for Jesus' sake, our many sins, sanctify and save us, since we ask and offer all in the name and for the sake of Christ, our dear Redeemer. Amen !"

This beautiful and appropriate prayer was listened to with profound attention, the entire assemblage rising to their feet, and as soon as the chaplain general concluded, the band played "Nearer My God to Thee," and as soon as the strains of the sacred music died away, the ceremonies attending the welcome commenced.



Gen. George Moorman, of Louisiana, was then presented by General Gordon and delivered the "Memorial Address" of the day.

He said: Mr. President, Ladies of the Memorial Association of Charleston, Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen:

In one of the most beautiful legends of antiquity, a story is related that one of the mightiest kings in history, when ready to start upon his warlike expeditions repaired to the tombs of his ancestors, there to receive inspiration and courage. Upon one of these visits to the abodes of the dead, he met in those sacred precincts, a delegation of his warriors and leading subjects from his provinces, who to his salutation: " What doest thou here?”  Replied, ''We seek justice, O King, at thy hands."


Certain it is that no such combination of the heroic, the pious and the gentle, has ever been seen upon earth, and history has placed his name amongst the Immortals,

"Though his earthly sun has set,
Its light shall linger round us yet,
Bright — radiant — Blest."

Next, passes in review the figure of one who, if his labors had ceased here on the 12th day of April, 1861, would have been classed with those whose names can never die, as his fame is inseparably interwoven with the gloom and glory of this great city and people, as well as of the whole South,

"There is a page in the book of fame —
On it is written a single name,
In letters of gold, in spotless white,
Encircled with stars of quenchless light ;
Never a blot that page has marred,
And the star wreathed name is Beauregard."


"While the troops in old Virginia were eating their scanty rations, or were resting upon their arms upon some bloody field, the left wing, under Kirby Smith, Dick Taylor, Price, Cabell, Marmaduke, Shelby and others, were moving forward to battle, and as the sounds of their muskets would cease firing, the center under Bragg, the Johnstons, Hood, Polk, Cleburne, S. D. Lee, Forrest, Wheeler, Morgan, Wm. H. Jackson, Cheatham, Buckner, Breckenridge, Stewart, and others would move forward to the harvest of death; and as the smoke of battle was clearing away from the left and center, the bugles of Hampton, Stuart, Fitzhugh Lee and Ashbv would sound for the charge upon the right wing, and the mighty guns of Lee, Beauregard, Jackson, Gordon, the Hills, Pickett, Heth, Ewell and Earlv would echo over the hills and in the smiling valleys of the old Dominion.


Second Day's Proceedings, Thursday, May 12, 1899


During the day the orchestra rendered delightful music for the entertainment of the old soldiers.

The Convention then adjourned until to-morrow at 10 A.M. The band played "Dixie," and the veterans shouted themselves hoarse as they filed out of the building


Third Day's Proceedings, Friday, May 13, 1899


Dr. J.L.M. Curry's Address:


"I have made that reference for a purpose; those men and those glorious women who periled all in the defense of States' rights were not governed by mere sentimentality, nor by prejudice, nor by hatred, nor did they act in haste, but they acted properly Aden those men who fell and those who survived in that great struggle, had behind them purposes as pure and right as those of he Eternal God.


"I affirm it with some knowledge of history, and not being unfamiliar altogether with what has been written about women in other ages and other countries, and I affirm  Mr. President, that the future of the South and our families rests upon the women of the South.  Prior to the war, their loveliness, refinement, purity of character and should, their great and never-ending sacrifices in the hours of peril and danger has never been approached in any other country."



Gen. Clement A. Evans [President], of Georgia, then presented the Confederate Memorial Association report, which reads as follows:

Charleston May 11, 1899

The board of trustees of the Confederate Memorial Association submitted to the Convention the report of the of the executive committee as their own report, which was adopted after full consideration. The trustees are highly gratified by the result of the year's faithful work which has been done by the executive committee, whose members have assiduously, faithfully and intelligently, at no little personal sacrifices, given their attention to the very important interests committed to their care. They are happy in being able to report the favorable progress which this report exhibits, and their convictions that the end of the long struggle to establish our great memorial institution is near at hand and that we will see with pride the fulfillment of our patriotic Confederate hope.

The following is the report of the executive committee which was adopted, as above stated, as the report of the board of trustees: ''To the Board of Trustees, C. M. A., Your executive committee respectfully submit the following report:

" We have held five meetings of the committee during the year; one in Atlanta, two in Richmond, one in New York, and one in Washington.

"The conferences held with the Confederate Memorial Literary Society of Richmond, Va., having in charge the Confederate Museum, in that city, have been entirely satisfactory, and the Society has by formal resolution signified its readiness to promptly co-operate with us in every way possible to insure the successful completion of the work contemplated by this organization.

"The superintendent and secretary has submitted a detailed report from which it appears that:

"There is on deposit in the Fourth National Bank in Nashville, Tennessee, the sum of $7,292.53; that he has obtained subscriptions available when the full amount of one hundred thousand dollars has been secured, $42,025; that he has further contributions promised amounting to $4,500. The subscription of Charles Broadway Rouss, on which he has authorized us to draw at sight, $20,000, $100,000. Total is $153,817.53.

"So that we have only $46,182.47 to raise in order to secure the whole amount to meet Mr. Rouss' munificent donation, and when this is obtained we shall have the sum of two hundred thousand dollars.

"And in this estimate we do not include the value of the Confederate Museum property at Richmond, nor do we include the sum of $6,026.96, reported to be in the hands of the Tennessee Centennial Exposition Company, but which as we understand will be paid over to our Association whenever needed for actual use.

"It will thus be seen that the work of the Association is in a most satisfactory condition, and there is every reason to hope and to believe that before our next annual meeting the whole sum needed to begin the erection of our memorial building will have been secured.

"The trustees have for several years devoted their time and expended their personal funds in the prosecution of this work, and the executive committee has borne and especially heavy part of this burden.

"The superintendent reports that there was a balance due him on May 1, 1899, on account of salary and expenses of $7,715.50.

"We have been much pleased to know that the selection of Richmond as the city in which the memorial building is to be located meets with general approval, and we were especially gratified to learn from Mr. Rouss that it meets with his most cordial approbation."

Respectfully submitted by the executive committee: Robert White, chairman; Thomas S. Kenan, J. Taylor Ellyson, J.B. Briggs.

Clement A. Evans, ex-officio .Respectfully submitted as the report of the board.



fter the adoption of the report of the board of trustees of the Confederate Memorial Association presented by its president, General Clement A. Evans, of Georgia, General Jno. B. Gordon introduced to the Convention Gen. Jno. C. Underwood of Kentucky, the Superintendent and Secretary of the Confederate Memorial Association.

General Gordon said:

"Allow me to present to you Gen. Jno. C. Underwood of Kentucky, the man who raised the money and erected the noble monument over the Confederate dead at Chicago, and who is now doing so much to secure the funds with which to build the memorial edifice at Richmond. He should receive thanks of all Confederates, and will have the gratitude of all Southern people."


Real Origin of Sword Over the Gown

General John Cox Underwood

May 13, 1899

Charleston, South Carolina

"determined to try and secure a collection of magnificent portraits"


Two of the portraits by Eliphalet F. Andrews displayed by
General John C. Underwood, UCV, at Charleston Reunion in 1899:

General John B. Gordon;
now at Gordon State College, Barnesville, Georgia

General Nathan Bedford Forrest;
now at Stephen
D. Lee Home and Museum, Columbus, Mississippi


General Underwood then said:

"Mr. President and Comrades, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is greatly embarrassing to be presented to you so flatteringly, when I can but feel it is undeserved, but, sir, (turning to the president), I sincerely thank you for the kind words you have spoken, and I hope my future acts may enable me to deserve some of them."

And again facing the audience he spoke to the Veterans as follows:

"It is true that many years ago I raised the money and builded a monument over the Confederate dead at Chicago, and have, in a manner, given my life to the service of the Lost Cause and have the purpose of perpetuating a true history of the Southern people during the civil war so strongly engrafted on me that it is considered by many my hobby. I reckon it is. However, it is the purpose of the man from his heart, without exception of other than legitimate reward, being willing to give credit to all and no desiring to rob anyone of the smallest right.

"Having met with such considerable success in my endeavors toward raising funds to erect the proposed memorial buildings at Richmond, as have been indicated by the report just read, I determined to try an secure a collection of magnificent portraits of the most distinguished Confederate generals with which to embellish it at the time of dedication.

"Therefore, independent of my undertaking to raise the money to construct the memorial building, I began securing a fund with which to secure the paintings I desired. Not having all the money necessary myself, but feeling confident of being able to raise it, I contracted with Prof. E. F. Andrews, the director of the Corcoran School of Art, at Washington, D.C., for the paintings in oil of said portraits, every one of which should be companion pieces in excellence of portraits of Martha Washington, Thomas Jefferson and others by the same artist, now hanging in the east room of the White House, and for which the Government paid from $2,500 to $3,000 each, and received the portrait of Dolly Madison, so long on an easel in the White House blue room parlor, (the best of all of them), as a specimen sample of the work to be done on each of the portraits of generals to be painted. There, next to the right upper box facing the stage, is the picture of the most noted and beautiful mistress of the nation's Capital palace, and the artistic work on the dress alone has give fame to Prof. Andrews. The portrait next to the left upper box is the best and most characteristic likeness of the world's great natural soldier, Forrest, as he came out of Fort [Donelson] on the snow covered ground, bespattered with mud and dust, a realism of art, portraying a hero at the start. On the right next the lower box is your own beloved Hampton, taken from an early picture, when he first donned his spurs, wherein the superb man is made manifest from brow to heels, with canvas back of tapestry and displaying the sword he wore, which was captured by his grandfather from Col. Tarleton, the British dragoon, during the 'R
evolution,' and afterwards he had mounted with gold and tortoise shell, and on the left next the lower box is the portrait of your peerless president, the renowned Gordon, a fearless leader, who was at the forefront at the finish, the picture representing the General in regular Confederate uniform, and the head considered by the artist painter as one of his best works of art. Again, on the right next the stage is the best representation in existence of the Napoleon of the war, "Stonewall" Jackson, with landscape surroundings of the Shenandoah Valley, where his great generalship was first displayed; wearing his old colonel's coat with wreath and stars sewed on the collar, and the only cap of its pattern in the army, with hair and whisker painted from locks of the same furnished me by his wife, the face considered the best and that in the book of Col. Henderson, of the English army. Last, on the left next stage, is the portrait of the incomparable Gen. Robert E. Lee, the Christian gentleman, the great commander, placed first by foreign nations; possessing the confidence and affection of his men, and the greatest respect and fear by his opposing army. He stands with old field uniform, with the sword of A.P. Hill, borrowed for the occasion of taking the photograph, with his grand, noble face, that needs no encomium other than the expression it conveys.

"The portrait of Lee belongs to the Association, those of the other generals belong to me, and will be given to the South at the proper time, when there shall be a place to put them. I propose to donate twenty such portraits, all equal in excellence with the others, but I do not desire to thrust myself upon the Convention of the South, and I desire to know whether my proposal meets with approval, and if my people will accept the service proffered. I thank you for the courtesy of attention and for the great applause, because of purpose."

At the conclusion of Gen. Underwood's speech General Gordon came to the front as said:

"The South owes Gen. Underwood a lasting debt of gratitude for his continued, unswerving services in its behalf, not only for the care of its dead in Chicago, but for the grand work he has in hand, and is so successfully advancing; and I ask that this Convention shall express its unbounded gratitude to him, and say to our friends and the people everywhere that if fully endorses his action and approves of the good work he is doing."

Whereupon he put the question and by unanimous vote the Convention complimented Gen. Underwood as suggested by the Chair amidst enthusiastic applause.


Relics from Charleston Reunion:


Louisville, 1900:


First Day’s Proceedings

Wednesday, May 30, 1900



The U. C. V. Chaplain General, Rev. Dr. J. Wm. Jones, a soldier of the Army of Northern Virginia, an intimate friend both of General Robt. E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, delivered an earnest prayer in which he said:

"We thank Thee, oh God for thy mercy and grace under which we gather in this annual Reunion. We thank Thee that so many of our comrades are left, and permitted to assemble here in this great city, giving thanks for Thy blessings, and praising Thee forever.

"We pray that richest blessings be showered on all Confederate Veterans everywhere, and also that Thy richest spiritual blessings may be their portion. We thank God for the large number of Christian soldiers still in the ranks. We thank Thee for the Daughters of the Confederacy, who are doing such a noble and self-sacrificing work all over our fair Southland. We also give Thee gracious thanks for the Sons of Confederate Veterans, they also are devoting their best talents to the upbuilding of our beloved cause, that cause for which their fathers suffered and died on the battlefield.

"And now Oh Lord we pray thy blessings upon this Reunion, be with us in our work, guide us in the way we should go, and after we have disbanded for another year go with us to our homes, and have us in Thy keeping, and we shall praise Thee forever and forever. Amen !"


Music by the Band —  " My Old Kentucky Home."

Address of welcome on behalf of the Board of Trade, by Colonel Thomas W. Bullitt.

Colonel Thomas W. Bullitt spoke for the Louisville Board of Trade. He said:


Your leaders in war have continued to be leaders, because they were worthy. But side by side with them, equal in dignity, equal in intellect and in energy in every state and in every walk of life, stand those whom they led as privates in in the ranks.

If, in this city, you shall inquire for the leading merchants and business men, among them will certainly be named Capt. George C. Norton, enlisted as a private in the Eighth Georgia Infantry; Hairy Weisfinger, a private in Morgan's cavalry, and Gen. John B. Castleman enlisted as Captain in John H. Morgan's squadron, all active and distinguished members of the Board which I have the honor to represent.

Ask who for thirty years have stood as leaders among professional men, and you cannot fail to hear the names of Dr. David W. Yandell, Rev. John A. Broaddus and Prof. Whitsitt, the latter a private in Forrest's cavalry.

Ask whom you will for the leading citizens of this State, and you will surely hear named among them Simon Bolivar Buckner and Basil W. Duke.

And what exists here exists throughout the South. And not alone in our Southland have the energy and power of the old Confederate Soldier been shown. Wherever the fates have landed him he has stood a man among men, the peer of the greatest and the best.

Judah P. Benjamin accomplished at a single bound what no other foreigner ever achieved — a place at the head of the English Bench. Mr. Lamar, Cabinet Officer and Justice of the United States Supreme Court, stood the equal of the ablest among his associates.

To-day no surgeon in New York outranks Dr. Wyeth, enlisted as a soldier in Forrest's command.

And John Inman, cotton factor and banker, holding his own among the giants of finance, as the man who first directed attention and guided foreign capital to the South; to whose knowledge of her resources and whose energy in action and in advice are due Birmingham and that great system now developed into the Southern railway — the source owes to him an untold debt of gratitude.


Doubtless the common federate Soldier would ultimately have led him into the true course of duty. But for the promptness and thoroughness with which this result was achieved, the South stands indebted, beyond all other influences, to the wisdom, the advice and the example of the great leader who then and always held their confidence, their esteem and the boundless love of their hearts.

Fellow soldiers of the Confederacy, I have seen the tomb of Napoleon Bonaparte, the most splendid monument ever erected in honor of a world hero; I have seen the mausoleum, on the banks of the Hudson, in which lies the body of Gen. Grant, a magnificent tribute of a great people to a great man; I have seen the monuments erected by the English people to their national heroes. Lord Nelson and Lord Wellington; but I have never seen — I believe the world does not contain — a monument which so uplifts the soul, which so arouses the affection, the pride, the love of glory and the love of duty, which so touches the heart of an entire people — as does the recumbent statue of Robert E Lee in the Chapel of Washington and Lee University.

Veterans of the Confederate army, in the name of the Board of Trade, in the name of all our people whom it so worthily represents, welcome to Louisville and to Kentucky.



Presentation of the Building to the Commanding General by General Bennett H. Young, Chairman of Reunion Committee:

After the song Gen. Bennett H. Young was introduced by Commander Poyntz, and the greeting he received was second only to that accorded the Commander-in-Chief of the Veterans. Gen. Young made a grand, impassioned speech, which kept the Veterans cheering at the end of almost every sentence.


Gen. Bennett H. Young Pays An Eloquent Tribute To the Gray Old Veterans.

Gen. Bennett H. Young spoke as follows:

Mr. Commander and Comrades: This hour witnesses the realization of long cherished plans and the fulfillment of years of hope. The Confederates of Kentucky, with great desire, have longed for a meeting of the survivors of the "Lost Clause" within the limits of this Commonwealth, and now, that you have come, in so far as they control or command the happenings of this occasion, there is no good thing they would withhold from you.


From defeat we won imperishable renown. Losing, we have crowned our dead nation, its heroes and its living people with a glorious immortality. Wonderfully illustrious record ! There are no stains on the Southern shield. Confederate men and women did all they could do. They were defeated, not because they were wrong or unfaithful in any respect whatever, but because an overruling Providence decreed their downfall in the solution of a divine policy for the government of the world, into which human ken cannot pierce or venture. But this does not dim the splendor of their heroism, the glory of their patriotism, or the grandeur of their sacrifices.

As you entered the city of Louisville from the south two objects must have attracted your attention. The first of these was the hospital erected by the people of Louisville for the care of the yellow fever sufferers of the South. When the " destruction that wasteth at noon-day and the pestilence that walketh in darkness" hovered with death- dealing touch over the Southland, -all the cities save Louisville shut out her refugees. Her women and her children fleeing from this unknown, stealthy enemy, met a hearty reception here. Hospitals were built, nurses were provided, and these sufferers were treated with tenderest and truest care. Hundreds of them went down in death before this horrible plague and have found a resting place beneath the soil of Kentucky. These acts on the part of the city of Louisville speak in truer tones than all the eulogies I could pronounce of the love of the people of Louisville and Kentucky for the men and women of the South.

At the head of one of the great thoroughfares of the city of Louisville, as you enter its limits, you behold a splendid monument. It was erected by the Confederacy. It has upon it only three words, and these are " Our Confederate Dead." Mark you, comrades, these words, " Our Confederate Dead." Sleeping on our hillsides, down along the valleys, in solitary graves or in its cemeteries, beneath the sod of our Commonwealth, rest at least 6,000 of your immortal dead; all the States of the Confederacy are represented there, and we regard as the richest of our treasures the ashes of your brave, which the disasters and calamities of war have left in our keeping. We have not only cared for our dead, but we have cared for yours, and at Danville, Cynthiana, Lexington, Louisville, Paris, Frankfort, at Georgetown, Nicholasville and Richmond are monuments — the evidences of our faithfulness and our devotion to the memory of our Confederates who found the end while battling in our State.

These dead came from homes in Florida, where the roses never fade and the flowers never cease to bloom, and where men are valiant and intrepid; from the mountains and the hills of the great Empire State, Georgia, always patriotic, always true; from the valleys and plantations of South Carolina, where mingle in such richness the blood of the Huguenots and Anglo-Saxon creating a knightly manhood worthy of every call which duty makes; from North Carolina, that wonderful Commonwealth, whose soldiers, in all our great battle fields, exhibited a courage and heroism, and suffered a decimation that stands unparalleled; from Virginia, whose soil drank so much blood of our precious dead and whose sons portrayed a valor and chivalry worthy of the cavaliers from whom they sprang, and worthy of her who has given to our country countless wealth in military and civil patriots; from Tennessee, that great volunteer State, the spirit of whose people no calamity could break, and whose love of country shone with a lustre that no misfortune could dim. They came from the plains of Alabama, whose offering of more than 40,000 gallant sons attested the zeal and loyalty of the Commonwealth within which was organized the Confederacy; from the Deltas of the Mississippi, whose soldiers by their impetuous heroism on all the great battle fields, from the Father of Waters to the Atlantic, have made a glorious memorial which will abide forever; from the prairies of Texas, whose children breathe freedom's air and who catch noblest courage from the chainless winds which sweep her boundless plains; from Arkansas, whose soldiers at home and abroad filled out the highest measure of manliest devotion and unfaltering bravery in defense of Southern rights. There are heroes here, too, from Louisiana who, with the fire and dash of the French, possessed the dogged determination and unfailing patience of the Anglo-Saxon, who won renown and glory upon every field on which they fought; from Missouri, whose men, expatriated and exiled, never ceased to love that holy cause to which they had consecrated their splendid manhood and whose sufferings on a hundred battle fields showed costliest sacrifice men could make for liberty and right. And Maryland, chivalrous Maryland, whose horsemen and footmen always ought the head of the column, who gloried in marching where dangers were thickest and in whose Confederate soldiers the world has an example of intrepidity, constancy and fearlessness, which will forever shine on the escutcheon of their native Commonwealth with a brilliancy and glory which no future can pale and no heroism surpass .



Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer, of New Orleans, La., the orator of the day.

[Note — This matchless oration is inserted here in the proceedings in the order in which it was delivered as it should be in the possession of every camp, and of every Veteran of the South, and will be preserved as one of the most beautiful gems of Confederate literature .

Dr. Palmer was known to most all of the Veterans present, and is one of the most beloved Divines in the South, and stands easily primus inter pares.

This oration and the masterly and eloquent style in which it way delivered, is considered by all who heard, and have read it, as the orator's greatest effort, and takes rank as one of the greatest orations of the century.

Adjutant General.]

When General Gordon introduced the Rev. B. M. Palmer, D. D., of New Orleans, who are the orator of the day, there was another remarkable demonstration, men rose from their seats, threw their hats into the air and ladies waved their handkerchiefs, and enthusiasm was at its highest pitch.

General Gordon introduced Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer, as follows:

General Gordon said: And now my hearers, I have the pleasure, does that sound strong enough, I have the great privilege of presenting to you, as the orator of the day, our beloved brother and friend of the Confederate Veterans everywhere, the friend of humanity, a soldier of that great array represented here and above, an almighty champion of right and of truth, our beloved brother Dr. Palmer.

And now, my comrades, and especially those good people upon the stage and in the galleries, let me appeal to you to keep silence while Dr. Palmer will speak words of great eloquence and power. Let him have your attention.

The Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer, spoke as follows:

Confederate Veterans and Fellow Citizens:

Accustomed through sixty years to address public assembles, I am nevertheless subdued with awe in your presence to-day, for we stand together under the shadow of the past. It is the solemn reverence one might feel in the gloom of Westminster Abbey, surrounded by England's illustrious dead. Indeed, we are here, the living representatives of countless comrades, who sleep in lonely cemeteries throughout the land; where perchance a single monumental shaft is the ghostly sentinel keeping watch over the bivouac of the dead.


Shall I point you to the Communists of modern France? The fatal song of the Syrens, luring the unwary mariner upon the rock of Scylla, breathed no more seducing accents than those of " Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," which roused the passions of the wild enthusiasts dancing around the Tri-color of the French revolution. But,the true import of those insane ravings was soon read amid the horrors of the Bastille and the Guillotine until the world stood aghast at the frightful spectacle of crime and blood. And burning Paris, spared by the conquering Prussian only to smoulder beneath the torch of her own incendiaries, tells the bitter fruit of that radicalism sweeping like a whirlwind over Europe and America; and which, unless checked by the power of God, will yet sack the world and lay the earth in ashes at His feet.


Sword Over the Gown’s Historic and Prophetic First Unveiling

From The Atlanta Constitution, May 31, 1900:


Fourteen Works of Art Presented to the South

The Interesting Exercises

Portraits Presented by Ex- [Lt.] Governor Underwood,
of Kentucky.

Lee, Jackson and Semmes Portrayed

Exercises at Louisville Last Night
Were Among the Most Beautiful of the Entire Reunion.


Louisville, Ky., May 30. – [Lt.]Governor John C. Underwood, of Bowling Green, Ky., tonight at reunion hall, unveiled and presented to the South fourteen life size portraits of military, naval and civil leaders of the Confederacy.

General Underwood had these portraits painted by E. F. Andrews, director of the Corcoran Art Gallery School of Art, Washington.

He chose this artist because Professor Andrews painted the portraits of Martha Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Dolly Madison, that hang in the White House. The fourteen portraits, which are insured for $30,000, will be returned to the Corcoran Art Gallery after the reunion is over, to remain until the Confederate Memorial Building is finished at Richmond, Va. On thousand people were present to view the exercises, notwithstanding the rainy weather.

Semmes as He Stood on Deck.

The portrait of Admiral Semmes was unveiled by Miss Georgia Beckley, a niece of the Admiral. He is represented standing on the deck of the Alabama just before the fight with the Kearsarge.

General Wade Hampton’s portrait was unveiled by Miss Elizabeth de Hart Smith, a daughter of Colonel Calhoun Smith. General Hampton wears the tortoise shell sword scabbard captured by his grandfather from Colonel Tarleton during the Revolutionary War.

Miss Ethel Humphrey, cousin of General Thomas Churchill, unveiled the portrait of General James Longstreet. It has been accepted by General Longstreet and Mrs. Longstreet as and accurate likeness.

“Stonewall” Jackson’s portrait was unveiled by Miss Annie May Woolsridge, granddaughter of Colonel Charles F. Johnson of the staff of General Buckner. Mrs. Jackson sent to the artist some of her husband’s hair for the sake of accuracy. The cap which General Jackson holds in his hand was worn b him at the college in Virginia and also during the war.

Portrait of Lee Unveiled.

Miss Ida Edwards, granddaughter of Rev. E. T. Perkins, chaplain at large for Lee’s army, unveiled the portrait of General Robert E. Lee. The portrait was made from a photograph taken in Richmond about the middle of the war. The sword General Lee wears was borrowed for the occasion from General A. P. Hill.

General Albert Sydney Johnston’s portrait was unveiled by Miss Louise Taylor, granddaughter of General Thomas Hart Taylor.

Joseph E. Johnston’s portrait was unveiled by Miss Elizabeth Reynolds, a granddaughter of Eli M. Bruce, a member of the Confederate State Congress. This portrait is an especially good one because the artist was personally acquainted with General Johnston.

The portrait of Leonidas Polk, which was unveiled by Miss Ethel Roberts, granddaughter of Dr. Yandell, Medical Director of the West, shows the soldier-priest in his church robes. In his left hand he holds a Bible and his right hand rests upon a chair upon which are a sword and the uniform of a Major-General.

Miss Margaret Weissinger, daughter of Captain Harry Weissinger, unveiled the portrait of General Stephen D. Lee. General Lee is shown leaning on a cannon, he having started in the service of the Confederacy as a captain of artillery.

Miss Francis Breckinridge Stelle, of Kentucky, unveiled the portrait of her grandfather, General John C. Breckinridge. General Breckinridge is shown seated in the Office of the War Department receiving his commission.

Likeness of Harris.

The portrait of Isham G. Harris, War Governor of Tennessee, which so far is the only portrait in the collection of a man from civil life, was unveiled by Miss Alice Underwood Montford, of Nashville, a niece of [Lt.] Governor Underwood. Governor Harris is shown standing at his desk in the Capitol of Tennessee. Miss Roberta Buchanan, niece of the late Colonel R. H. Thompson, unveiled the picture of General Nathan B. Forrest. General Forrest is shown in the uniform of a Lieutenant-Colonel of cavalry as he made his escape through the lines around Fort Donelson. Miss Francis K. Duke, daughter of General Basil Duke and niece of General John H. Morgan, unveiled General Morgan’s portrait. General Morgan stands by the side of his horse in the snow. The portrait of General John B. Gordon was unveiled by Miss Jessie Norton, daughter of Captain George C. Norton of Georgia.

The state societies of the Ladies Confederate Memorial Association today formed the Confederate Southern Memorial Association. The state societies represented were from Virginia, Louisiana and Arkansas.

The officers elected were: President, Mrs. W. J. Behan, New Orleans; First Vice-President, Mrs. L. Graham, New Orleans; Recording Secretary, Miss Daisy M. L. Hodgson, New Orleans; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Julia A Garside, of Fayetteville, Ark.


First Heroine-Saint of Grand Memory

Ethel Roberts Wood

1880 - 1969

Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Kentucky



Thursday Morning, May 31, 1900


The meeting was called to order by General Jno. B. Gordon at 10:20 A. M. He asked that the Veterans all stand and sing that glorious old hymn:

All hail the power of Jesus' name!
Let angels prostrate fall;
Bring forth the royal diadem.
And crown Him Lord of all !

Crown Him., ye martyrs of our God,
Who from His altar call:
Extol the stem of Jesse's rod,
And crown Him Lord of all !

Hail Him, the Heir of David's line,
Whom David Lord did call;
The God incarnate ! Man divine !
And crown Him Lord of all !

Ye seed of Israel's chosen race,
Ye ransomed of the fall,
Hail Him who saves you by His grace,
And crown Him Lord of all!

Sinners, whose love can ne'er forget
The wormwood and the gall,
Go spread your trophies at His feet.
And crown Him Lord of all !

Let every kindred, every tribe,
Before Him prostrate fall!
To Him all majesty ascribe.
And crown Him Lord of all!

General Gordon sang with great fervor, and with his whole heart and soul. The vast gathering rose as one man. and the thousands of voices in accord seemed to shake the big Hall.

Prayer by Bishop T. M. Dudley, Episcopal Bishop of Kentucky.

Almighty God in whom we live, move and have our being, we give Thee most hearty thanks that thou of Thy tender mercy hath permitted us to gather once more together in this most blessed Reunion. We thank Thee for Thy great goodness to us and all mankind through the year that has just passed, and we do now pray that Thou will be with us during this meeting. Guide us in our deliberations, be with us each day, and grant that all that we do will be done for Thy honor and glory .

Bless our beloved Commander, bless our dear comrades wherever they are, and after this life gather them into Thy fold, and into that great army where all our great heroes are gathered, and there shall be "One Shepherd and one Fold." We place ourselves in Thy keeping, and give Thee thanks forever and forever. Amen.



FRIDAY, JUNE 1st, 1900, 10 A. M.



Louisville, Ky., May 31, 1900.

United Confederate Veterans :

The Board of Trustees of the Confederate Memorial Association take very great pleasure in submitting for your information a statement concerning the work of the Association during the past year. Our success has been far beyond our expectations and we are grateful to be able to report that on the 26th day of May, 1900, we had cash in bank $65,210.20, and in good and reliable subscriptions $.59,227.15, making $124,437.35. In addition to the above amount we now have the donation of Mr. Charles Broadway Rouss of $100,000.00, making a total amount of cash and subscriptions $224,437.3.5.

It will be seen by the following letter of Mr. Rouss that he is thoroughly satisfied that all the conditions made by him for the payment of the sum above mentioned have been fully met and he has authorized drafts to be made on him for the full amount of his donation of $100,000.00 :

Charles Broadway Rouss,
549-553 Broadway,

New York City, May 9th, 1900

To the Confederate Memorial Association :

General John C. Underwood, Superintendent and Secretary of the Association, having exhibited to me evidence in the form of subscriptions to the Confederate Memorial Association aggregating over $123,000.00, and having produced certificates of deposit in bank and with corporations, and displayed exchange otherwise held by him for deposit, embracing funds collected from such sources, together with a cash guarantee on account of unpaid subscriptions, all amounting to ninety-nine thousand five hundred and eighty-seven dollars and sixteen cents ($99,587.16) without including various small collections deposited locally of nearly $5000, or even depending upon the large residue of uncollected subscriptions not guaranteed and desiring from me a statement agreeing to pay $40,000 in two equal installments, in addition to the $20,000, for which authority was given to make sight draft on May 3d, 1899, and the $40,000 for which authority was given to make two sight drafts of $20,000 each on March 20th, 1900; all in compliance with my promised contribution of $100,000 to the said C. M. A. as my duplicate of the money now in hand and secured.

Therefore, relying on the strict impartiality and business methods of the Secretary and reposing entire confidence in the said Association, I do hereby authorize the Confederate Memorial Association, through authorized representative or representatives, to draw two additional drafts on me at sight for twenty thousand ($20,000) dollars each, thereby making the full $100,000 authorized to be drawn at intervals whenever the said Association shall think proper to do so; and it may even divide the money specified for drafts, and draw them in ten thousand-dollar amounts, if the Association should so prefer, always making the aggregate $100,000 by summation of all drafts to be drawn.

And I further wish the greatest success to the Memorial undertaking in hand.

[signed] C. B. ROUSS

Attest : W. ROUSS, Attorney

Augustine Smith,

John Underwood,

James T. White

We cannot too cordially express our grateful appreciation for this generous action on the part of Mr. Rouss. His intelligent and liberal interest in the work of the Confederate Memorial Association has enabled us to announce that we have no longer any doubt as to the complete success of the work committed to our hands. The name of Charles Broadway Rouss will always be held in grateful remembrance by the people of the South.

It will doubtless be a matter of interest to the Convention to know that we have elected as Treasurer of our Association Judge Geo. L. Christian, of Richmond, Va. He will give bond in the penalty of $50,000 for the faithful performance of his duty. We will say for those who may not happen to know Judge Christian that no comrade in all the commonwealth of Virginia enjoys in larger measure the confidence and esteem of his people.

We have had a request from the subscribers to our fund at Vicksburg, Miss., made through D. A. Campbell, Esq., for the return of $400, and a similar request from Hope, Ark., for the return of $50, together with a petition from the Association of the Army of Tennessee, Louisiana Division, for the return of a certificate of deposit of $175.25, with which requests we have the pleasure to comply and we have ordered the Treasurer to return the remittances and drafts asked for.

We cannot close this report without an expression of our hearty appreciation of the invaluable services of Gen. J. C. Underwood, our Superintendent and Secretary, to whose untiring energy and devotion to this cause we owe the success that has crowned our work during the year just closed. General Underwood through all the discouragements and difficulties incident to so great an undertaking has been unfaltering in his confidence of ultimate success and he has demonstrated with singleness of purpose and consecrated aim can finally accomplish. We feel that he deserves the hearty commendation and unstinted appreciation of all who have taken any interest in the erection of the Confederate Memorial Institute, for the construction of which this Association was organized.

The following letter from Mr. Augustine J. Smith, Secretary to Mr Chas. Broadway Rouss, will show how heartily he, as well Mr. Rouss, appreciates the work done by Gen. Underwood:

New YorK City, May 9, 1900

To General John C. Underwood, Major General, Manager Confederate Memorial

The Lotus Club, New York City:

Dear General: I wish to congratulate you upon your splendid, achievement in finally raising the two hundred thousand dollars for the Memorial fund, which culminated today in the payment by Mr. Rouss of the balance due on his subscription of one hundred thousand dollars.

You have had a hard fight and under difficulties which would have meant failure with the vast, majority of men. But you have won, and you will doubtless receive, what you eminently deserve, the praise of all honorable and fair-minded men, among whom it is due to you to say, will be found the sincere commendation of both Mr. Rouss and myself.

Very truly yours,

Augustine J. Smith,

Secretary to Mr. C. P. Rouss

Respectfully submitted.


W. R GARRETT, Vice President







T. S. KENAN, (by R. White, proxy)

J. M. HICKEY, (by C. Evans, proxy)

After reading the report. General Gordon asked that the Veterans rise, to show their appreciation of this great gift from their blind comrade; the entire audience rose and cheered again and again.

General Evans: I can but thank you, my comrades, as the President of this Association, for this demonstration of your great respect and admiration and gratitude to this Comrade, Chas. Broadway Rouss, a private in our ranks, but as brave a soldier as ever shouldered a musket.


Afternoon Session



Anniversary of Jefferson Davis' Ninety-Second Birthday, Sunday, June 3, 1900.

[From Courier Journal, June 4th, 1900]

The reunion of the Confederate veterans came to a close yesterday afternoon with a memorial service in Reunion Hall, Sixth street and the river. Yesterday was the ninety-second anniversary of the birth of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States, and the services were in commemoration of him, of Winnie Davis “the daughter of the Confederacy," and of the thousands of peerless soldiers and illustrious commanders who lost their lives on the field of battle.



Gen. Lee then introduced the Rev. Dr. J. William Jones, of Virginia, the Chaplain General of the United Confederate Veterans, who preached the memorial sermon He spoke from Hebrews xii., 1-2.

Dr. Jones' sermon was as follows:


After the reading of the Scriptures by Rev. Carter Helm Jones, D. D.D. of Louisville, (son of the preacher), Gen. Lee introduced Chaplain General Jones, who announced as his text Hebrews xii., "Therefore seeing we, also, are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin, which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, looking into Jesus the author and finisher of our faith."

After alluding to the connection of the text — that grand array of illustrious names given in the previous chapter which has been so appropriately denominated "the roll call of the chivalry of faith," and the apostle's figure representing these as "a cloud of witnesses." Dr. Jones said :

In coming before my comrades on this "Memorial Day," which our Christian commander has ordered us to observe, and seeking to discharge the duty that has been assigned me, I can think of no more appropriate text than this, and no more appropriate line of thought than the one it suggests.

In recalling the memories which the day revives, and thinking of our noble leaders and beloved comrades who fell on the field of glory, or have since stepped out of our ranks, may we not appropriately remember that we, too, are compassed about by a great cloud of witnesses, and be exhorted to imitate their virtues as we run with patience the race set before us ?



We were blessed in the Confederate armies with a large number of Christians among our higher officers, our field and staff, and our company officers, such men as Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, D. H. Hill, Leonidas Polk, J. E. B. Stuart, T. R. Cobb, Kirby Smith, John B. Gordon, S. D. Lee, W. H. F. Lee, John Echols, M. P. Lowery, W.N. Pendleton, A.H. Colquitt, C. A. Evans, A. M. Scales, "Willie" Pegram, Lewis Minor Coleman, Charles S. Venable, Thos. H. Carter, Carter Braxton, and many others were, from the first, pronounced Christians, and during the war such men as R, S. Ewell, Pender, Hood, R. H. Anderson, Rodes, Paxton, W. H. S. Baylor, Lamar and many others came out on the Lord's side.

And these men were not merely nominal Christians, but active workers for Christ.


"The Confederate Reunion at Louisville," in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol. XXII, July - December 1900:

"In the course of the reunion it was announced that the sum of $223,000 had been raised for the erection of a Confederate Memorial Building at Richmond, Va. The plans for this structure have already been executed and accepted. They show a classic building of fine simplicity and tremendous mass- a great dome approached through heavy doric columns. In the edifice will be gathered the archives and historical treasures of the South, with the portraits and statues of her famous soldiers."


Relics of the Louisville Reunion:


"The people about it, belonging largely to the class whom Mr. Lincoln used to call 'the plain people,' have the stuff in them which, when called forth, has made the Anglo-Saxon race and given it its history. They have the good old English names — Stanley, Halloway, Askew, Lowry, West, etc. — and are pure Anglo-Saxon, with old English traits; speaking quaint old English. And fine features, and straight, clean-cut figures are not uncommon, for they are of good old stock. On the outbreak of war, they flocked into the army and made excellent soldiers, and many a small household to-day counts its sons who died on the battlefield, or in the hospital."

-Thomas Nelson Page, THE OLD DOMINION: Her Making and Her Manners, 1908


Thomas Nelson Page


"Abide with Me"

Henry F. Lyte, 1793-1847

Music: W.H. Monk, 1823-1889

Key: Eb

Tune: EVENTIDE, Meter: Meter:

1. Abide with me; fast falls the eventide;
the darkness deepens; Lord, with me abide.
When other helpers fail and comforts flee,
Help of the helpless, O abide with me.

2. Swift to its close ebbs out life's little day;
earth's joys grow dim; its glories pass away;
change and decay in all around I see;
O thou who changest not, abide with me.

3. I need thy presence every passing hour.
What but thy grace can foil the tempter's power?
Who, like thyself, my guide and stay can be?
Through cloud and sunshine, Lord, abide with me.

4. I fear no foe, with thee at hand to bless;
ills have no weight, and tears not bitterness.
Where is death's sting? Where, grave, thy victory?
I triumph still, if thou abide with me.

5. Hold thou thy cross before my closing eyes;
shine through the gloom and point me to the skies.
Heaven's morning breaks, and earth's vain shadows flee;
in life, in death, O Lord, abide with me.



Henry Francis Lyte



In the New York Times, October 27, 1913:

Gen. John Cox Underwood, a prominent Confederate veteran, a former Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky, and an uncle of Congressman Underwood, died yesterday morning at the Hahnemann Hospital from hardening of the arteries after an illness of six weeks. He was 73 years old.

Gen. Underwood by birth and marriage was connected with many of the best known Southern families. His father was United States Senator Underwood of Kentucky. Soon after his graduation from college in 1861, Gen. Underwood enlisted in the Confederate Army, and before the civil war was over he had attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. We was severely wounded in the fighting in Tennessee, and for the last year of the war he was a captive in the Federal prisons at Louisville, Cincinnati, and Fort Warren, Mass. Several years after the war he was made Major General of the United Confederate Veterans.

Miss Drue A. Duncan of Bowling Green, Ky., became Gen. Underwood's wife in 1867, and the two lived in Bowling Green for many years, during which time Gen. Underwood became Mayor of Bowling Green in 1870 and Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky in 1875. Practicing his profession of a civil engineer and architect he became wealthy, and spent a great part of his fortune in erecting monuments to the Confederate dead. His most notable achievement in this work was the erection in Chicago in 1891 of a monument over the 6,000 Southern soldiers who were buried there during the war.

Gen. Underwood came to New York for treatment and to be with his only children, Miss Helen Underwood of 934 West End Avenue, and Mrs. J.P. Grant of Montclair, N.J. The daughters left yesterday afternoon with the body, which will be buried in Bowling Green by the grave of the General's wife.



Fairview Cemetery, Bowling Green:




Confederate Monument Erected by John Cox Underwood,
Confederate Mound at Oak Woods Cemetery, Chicago:

This Monument
Was Conceived and Erected
The Ex-Confederate Association
Camp No. 8, Chicago, Illinois.

John W. White- President
Ramsey H. Stewart- 1st Vice President
Geo. Forrester- 2nd Vice President
R. Lee France, Secretary   Sam'l J Sullivan, Treasurer
M.R Schulin, Ass't. Sec'y.   John C. Ryan, Historian
Jere S. White, Asst. Sec'y
Sargeants at Arms, Chas. R. Tucker, T.F LInde, W.B. Phipps

And Dedicated
May 30th 1895.

Major General Jno. C. Underwood
Commanding Northern Division
U.C.V. West of the Alleghenies.


From; viewed 3/24/2014:

Confederate Mound at Oak Woods Cemetery

Chicago, Illinois

Near the southwest corner of Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood stands a 30-foot granite monument dedicated to the thousands of Confederate soldiers who died as prisoners of war at Camp Douglas. The monument marks a mass grave containing the remains of more than 4,000 Confederate prisoners, reinterred here from the grounds of the prison camp and the old Chicago City Cemetery.

Camp Douglas, located on land owned by politician Stephen A. Douglas— Abraham Lincoln’s opponent in the 1860 presidential election— originally served as a Union recruitment and training center. However, after the Union victory at Fort Donelson, Tennessee in December 1862, the camp became a major detention facility for Confederate prisoners of war. It had a maximum capacity of 10,000 prisoners, and over the course of the war, more than 26,000 Confederate prisoners passed through its gates. Disease, particularly smallpox, and exposure to the elements claimed the lives of more than 4,000 prisoners. The camp established two small cemeteries on its grounds, but most of the casualties were buried in Chicago’s old City Cemetery along the shores of Lake Michigan, in what is now Lincoln Park.

The lease for Camp Douglas required the removal of the entire camp, including the cemeteries, at the end of the Civil War. In 1866, Chicago closed the old City Cemetery due to its constant flooding, forcing the Federal Government to find a permanent burial ground for the remains of the Confederate prisoners. A lot within the Oak Woods Cemetery was selected, and approximately 4,200 remains were reinterred here between 1865 to 1867. Landscape architect Adolph Strauch designed the cemetery, envisioning it as a park-like setting, rather than a naturalistic garden, using curving pathways and slightly elevated burial plots. Many notable local residents, including several mayors, governors, and congressmen are buried throughout Oak Woods Cemetery.

Confederate Mound is an elliptical plot, approximately 475 feet by 275 feet, located between Divisions 1 and 2 of Section K. The most prominent feature of the plot is the Confederate Monument, a 30-foot granite column topped with a bronze statue of a Confederate soldier, a figure based on the painting “Appomattox” by John A. Elder. At the base of the tapered square shaft are three bas-relief images: “The Call to Arms” showing a group rallying for the cause, “A Soldier’s Death Dream” depicting a fallen soldier and his horse on the battlefield, and “A Veteran’s Return Home” showing a soldier arriving at a ruined cabin. General John C. Underwood, a regional head of the United Confederate Veterans, designed the monument and was at its dedication on May 30, 1895, along with President Grover Cleveland and an estimated 100,000 on-lookers. In 1911, the Commission for Marking the Graves of Confederate Dead paid to have the monument lifted up and set upon a base of red granite; affixed to the four sides of the base were bronze plaques inscribed with the names of Confederate soldiers known to be buried in the mass grave.

Four cannons surround the monument, forming a square 100 feet on each side. Between the monument and the northern cannon, 12 marble headstones laid in an arc mark the graves of unknown Union guards at the Camp Douglas prison camp. Also near the monument are the plot’s flagpole and a large cannonball pyramid.


The Confederate Here buried in concentric trenches were all Private soldiers.

The monument to their memory is of Georgia Granite, stands forty feet from the ground to the top of statue and was erected in July, 1893, with funds mainly subscribed by liberal citizens of Chicago and Camps of the United Confederate Veterans.

The Bronze panels of the pedestal die represent:

On the East Face, - The Call to Arms;
On the West Face, - A Veteran's Return Home;
And on the South Face, - A Soldier's Death Dream.

The bronze statue surmounting the battlemented cap of the column is a realistic representation of a Confederate infantry solider after the Surrender. The face expresses sorrow for the thousands of prison dead interred beneath.

The cannon, shot and shell ornamenting this Government lot, in which both Union and Confederate Dead are buried, were furnished by the War Department under authority of an Act of Congress approved January 25th, 1895.



"Bishop's Portrait Once on Barroom Wall Now Here," author unattributed, The Sewanee Purple, May 11, 1927:

It is the "face on the bar-room wall" this time, and after considerable juggling by the knees of Chance, it now adorns the walls of St. Luke's Common Room. The likeness is that of Bishop Leonidas Polk, crusader in the Episcopal Church, general in the army of the Confederate States and one of the founders* of the University of the South.

Immediately after the Civil War* the curator of the [Corcoran] Galleries was commissioned to paint portraits of the Confederate generals for the Battle Abbey, Richmond. Bishop Polk was one of the few who had lived to have the work completed.* The finished portrait was purchased by a syndicate of Southern men, and after the death of the last of these, it reverted to his estate and was sold at auction.

At Covington, Kentucky, an old bar-room with the finer sensibilities of pre-Volstead days snapped it up as a mural decoration. Amidst bubbling steins and a cascade of pretzels, ham, and eggs, the likeness of the great man of the Confederacy looked sternly down on the humanity reeling by below. When the national drink became soda-pop, the portrait still withstood the barrage of flying bottle caps and continued to adorn the land of fast horses, beautiful women, and what used to be good whiskey. There a representative of the University found it and bought it for a song. Or maybe it was two songs. It now lends atmosphere and inspiration to the theological students of the University as they plod over their tomes, or whatever it is that theological students plod over, if anything.

The picture in itself is interesting. It portrays the noble figure of Sewanee's founder in the vestments of a bishop of the Church. It was the last time that Bishop Polk wore the tokens of his episcopal authority. On a chair nearby lies the uniform of a general of the Confederate States Army. The calm dignity, the tremendous power, the broad vision of the man is well expressed on canvas. Noncommercialized on the basis of its intrinsic value, the picture has become one more addition to the possessions of the University which bear on Southern history.

(*Errors- Polk was the leading founder; killed in 1864, but the portrait was painted in 1900. Other records indicate it was purchased not from a saloon, but from a storage warehouse.)











First Elected Prelate,
Episcopal Diocese of


Constitutional Chancellor,
The University of the South at Sewanee


Lieutenant-General, Confederate Army of Tennessee





By the Reverence of our Souls we are led to Worship in our Christian Piety.





By the Knowledge of our Minds we are led to Create for our Christian Culture.





By the Courage of our Hearts we are led to Protect by our Christian Defense.



June 28, 2014:
Pine Mountain



"Our paladin comunity finds its own way to the intimate light.
Standing at the imprint of our fallen chieftan,
we welcome the arising within us of reasserted fundamental instinct:
Respecting the Dignity of Integrity."

-SIR ABDIEL, "Solstice," The Resurgametica


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